Lakes Sample Clauses

Lakes. During meal breaks or rest breaks, Lakes DHB will supply free tea, coffee, milk, and sugar. Where it is impractical to supply tea, coffee, milk, and sugar free of charge, an allowance of $1.26 per week in lieu shall be paid. This allowance will continue during all periods of leave except leave without pay.
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Lakes. During meal breaks or rest breaks, Lakes District will supply free tea, coffee, milk, and sugar. Where it is impractical to supply tea, coffee, milk, and sugar free of charge, an allowance of $1.26 per week in lieu shall be paid. This allowance will continue during all periods of leave except leave without pay.
Lakes. Trimming the edge of common area lakes shall be provided as needed to keep a neat appearance. Lake edge trimming shall be performed at a minimum of every second service visit.
Lakes. There shall be no swimming, skating, boating, and/or fishing in or on or other recreational use of any lake, pond, creek, ditch or stream on the Subdivision; except, however, fishing by residents and their guests only may be allowed on one or more occasions per year, that occasion or those occasions to be announced in advance and supervised by the board of directors of the Association.
Lakes a. Employees who qualify for a lieu day pursuant to the collective agreement may elect to accumulate up to five (5) lieu days at any given time during any one year period. Employees must provide notice in writing prior to the four (4) week schedule of their intention to take accumulated lieu Lieu days may not be attached to booked vacations. The Union proposes that a Restorative Aide Classification be added to the Collective Agreement. The Union further proposes that employees who work as Restorative Aides and who hold a Restorative Aide certificate will be paid the same rate as the Maintenance classification. DATED this of ON BEHALF OF THE EMPLOYER ON BEHALF OF THE UNION ADDENDUM BETWEEN (CANADA) INC. -AND SERVICE EMPLOYEES INTERNATIONAL UNION LOCAL
Lakes. Thirty peer-reviewed publications, reporting on the management of 41 eutrophic lakes, were evaluated. Three lakes were included more than once in the literature (maximum of 3 occurrences) resulting in 46 lake equivalent case studies. The publications were not selected randomly. Instead effort was taken to ensure that at least 3 publications were reported for a range of eutrophication management measures. These pre-defined management measures, along with the number and percentage of lakes for which data on each measure was reported in the meta-dataset, are reported. The lakes the evaluation is based upon stem from 9 countries and are dominated by very shallow (56 % lakes < 3 m mean depth) and shallow (41.3 % of lakes 3-15 m mean depth) lake types. By far the most common management objective reported in lakes was the reduction of in-lake phosphorus concentrations in an attempt to reduce phytoplankton biomass, either through the control of P loading from the catchment or through controlling internal P cycling (i.e. P capping, hypolimnetic aeration and sediment dredging). However, other management objectives included the control of grazer communities to reduce algal biomass through trophic cascades (e.g. biomanipulation), increasing the resilience of lakes to eutrophication pressure effects by increasing habitat diversity (e.g. installing artificial habitats), and enhancing biodiversity and system resilience through the introduction of desirable organisms (e.g. macrophytes and zooplankton).
Lakes. The state-of-the-art reviews on restoration of shallow, eutrophic lakes in Europe (Gulati and Van Donk, 2002; Xxxxxxxxxxx et al., 2007) have drawn several generalisations about the progress of lake rehabilitation works in NW Europe and all focus around biomanipulation. These reviews are based on numerous studies on temperate lakes carried out mostly in Denmark, the Netherlands, Germany and Sweden (Xxxxxx et al., 1990; Xxxxxxx et al., 1990; Jeppesen et al., 1990; Xxxxxxx et al., 1998; Meijer et al., 1999; Xxxxxxxx et al., 2002; Xxxxxx et al., 2002; Xxx xx Xxxx and Xxx Xxxx, 2002; Jeppesen et al., 2005). Many of these studies covered both whole-lake, enclosure and laboratory scale experiments and advanced our knowledge of theory and mechanisms behind the food-chain processes. Xxxxxxxxxxx et al., 2007 evaluated data from more than 70 restoration projects conducted mainly in shallow, eutrophic lakes in Denmark and the Netherlands. Special focus was again given to biomanipulation, the removal of zooplanktivorous and benthivorous fish, by far the most common internal lake measure. In the 46 lake equivalent case studies a range of single (63%) and combined (37%) management measures were reported (Figure 6). No. of LECs % of LECs 50 Number of LECs & % LECs 40 30 20 10 Water lev. man. Zoop. introd. Flushing Macrophyte int. Dredging Inc. hab. div. Hypo. oxy. P capping Fish stocking Fish removal External load reduction Figure 6. Summary of management measures targeted in the meta-analysis and the distribution of lake equivalent case studies (LECs) in which each of the measures was conducted. The use of combined management approaches was also conducted both consecutively and simultaneously. However, reductions in in-lake P concentrations were commonly reported, although the wide range of pre- and post-management annual mean TP concentrations estimated from reported data was large, the latter commonly well exceeding WFD lake type specific TP targets (Figure 5). Only 11% of lakes reported post-management annual mean TP concentrations below 0.1 mg TP l-1. The range of pre- and post-management annual mean TP concentrations reported for catchment nutrient load reduction alone (n = 7) were 0.1 to 1.6 mg TP l-1 and 0.03 to 0.25 mg TP l-1, respectively (delta TP range 1.35 to 0.05 mg TP l-1). For this management measure, only 4 lakes reported complete recovery in annual mean TP concentration with transient recovery periods estimated between 1 and 15 years. It is highly likely...
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Lakes. The general data analysis approaches employed in the 46 lake equivalent case studies are summarised (Figure 10). The majority of the lakes employed ‘before and after’ and ‘time series’ approaches. The majority of lakes employed multiple data analysis approaches (4 lakes used 1 approach; 34 lakes used 2 approaches; and 8 lakes used 3 approaches). The use of statistical analyses to validate the data analysis approaches across the 46 lakes is summarised (Figure 11). The majority of the 21 lakes in which statistical analyses were used to test some aspect of the recovery process used ANOVA or regression analyses. 26 % of the 46 lakes considered longer- term recovery effects (i.e. > 10 years; Figure 12). No. of LECs % of all LECs 120 100 Number and % of LECs 80 60 40 20 Space for time Control/impact Time series Before/after Figure 10. Number and proportion of 46 lake equivalent case studiesin which space for time, control/impact, time-series and before/after data analysis approaches were used. No. of LECs % of all LECs 30 25 Number and % LECs 20 15 10 5 T/Z test Correlation Regression ANOVA 0 Figure 11. Number and percent of 46 lake equivalent case studies in which statistical analyses were conducted to test the effects of management measure scenarios. No. of LECs % of LECs 50 Number and % of LECs 40 30 20 10 0 6-10 11-15 Years of monitoring in excess of max. reported transient period Figure 12. Distribution of lake equivalent case studies (n = 36) for which monitoring was conducted in excess of the estimated maximum transient recovery period. The majority of lake xxxxxx studies lack robust pre-xxxxxx conditions. Indeed, most xxxxxx projects were started simply if lake water pH dropped below 6.0. Knowledge of biological conditions was seldom measured as were other water chemistry variables. Analyses to determine the effects of xxxxxx are generally based on time-series data of surface water chemistry and comparison of lake biology with nearby reference lakes. Palaeolimnology has proved an important means of assessing the timing, extent and causes of acidification since the mid- ninteenth century. In particular the development of the diatom-pH transfer function and the use of sub-fossil material from lake sediments to identify pollution from long-range sources have provided valauble information in the absence of historical / monitoring data over this period. Palaeolimnological data can now be compared with observational time series data from monitored sites to pro...
Lakes. The literature review returned 333 lakes in which the recovery of at least one BQE was reported following external nutrient load reduction alone, 130 lakes in which only in-lake management was conducted and 51 lakes in which in-lake and external nutrient load management measures were conducted (Figure 22). Reports on phytoplankton were most common (44% of case studies reporting ecological recovery) followed by macrophytes (15%), zooplankton (14%), macroinvertebrates (13%), fish (12%), waterfowl (2%) and bacterioplankton (<1%). External In lake + external In lake 180 160 Number of LECs 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 Phytoplankton Macrophytes Zooplankton Macroinvertebrates Fish Waterfowl Bacterioplankton Figure 22. Number of lakes returned in the literature review for three management scenarios (external nutrient load reduction only, in lake management coupled with external nutrient load reduction, and in lake management only) for each of the 7 BQEs. The study did not separate the individual restoration measures taken. A number of studies have analyzed post-xxxxxx conditions of lakes and watercourses. As mentioned, chemical response is almost immediate, while response of different organism groups is taxon-specific. Fish, phytoplankton and benthic invertebrate assemblages are often monitored to determine the effects of xxxxxx on lake communities. Response times varying considerably and are often site-specific, but in general phytoplankton respond > benthic invertebrates > fish. Post-xxxxxx biological restoration has often focussed on two areas of study; namely, measures to facilitate natural recolonization and re-establishment of locally extinct populations and reintroduction of locally extinct species by restocking (Xxxxxxxxx 1995). For example, removal of migration obstacles and improvement of habitat are two measures used to facilitate recolonization and establishment. In contrast to assessing the effects of xxxxxx, fewer studies have looked at natural recovery of acidified lakes and watercourses. For lakes, fossil remains of diatoms and other organism groups (e.g. chironomid midges) have been frequently used in the Nordic countries, the UK and Canada. Although seemingly costly and requiring a substantial amount of taxonomic expertise, paleo approaches have been shown to be extremely good at establishing pre-acidified conditions as well as for tracking long-term changes in assemblage composition. More recently these approaches have been used to determine if recov...
Lakes. The concept of regime shifts was apparent within the lakes although none of the studies specifically set out to quantitatively assess response trajectories. The general approach was instead to assess specific responses over a short time scale. The main reason for failure of restoration in the case studies appeared to be insufficient control of catchment or internal TP loading or through lack of sustained control of fish stocks. In terms of acidification there are very few studies (and none included in the review) which address the concept of shifting baselines. However, recent (unpublished) data show how the recovery trajectories in some lakes are not tracking back towards the species communities found at the equivalent stage of the degradation phase. Several reasons have been proposed for this including the effects of atmospherically deposited nitrogen acting as a nutrient in N limited systems and the effects of climate change driven increases in temperature. Although there is little direct evidence that climate change has altered baselines so that new system equilibria have resulted, independent of the effects of existing pressures, increasing numbers of studies have identified cases where, despite measures taken to combat the effects acidification, the recovery trajectory is not indicating a return to pre-impact reference conditions. Estuarine and coastal waters Xxxxxxxxxx et al. (2011) found a parallel trend towards increase in chlorophyl-a yield per unit nitrogen in the past decade in all regions examined and they indicate this could be the result of the major shift in the baselines for the functioning of coastal ecosystems resulting from the combined effect of climate change, overfishing and, possibly, other components of global change. The shift in the functional relationship between chlorophyl-a and TN over time reported by Xxxxxxxxxx et al. (2011) helps to explain reported failure to revert eutrophied coastal ecosystems to their previous state following reduction of nutrient input (Xxxxxx et al. 2009). Despite observed increases in chlorophyl-a concentrations it is still important to stress that nutrient do release pressure on the ecosystem and improve conditions relative to what these would have been under a ‘do nothing scenario’. The Nervión estuary is an example of shifting baselines. In this estuary, recovery occurred with decreasing pressures but the system did not return to its original state, since many ecosystems had been reduced or lost (...
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