Literature Review Sample Clauses

Literature Review. ‌ As demonstrated in Millet at el.’s literature review, much of the public health community is working diligently to discern why AAMSM as a subgroup carry such a burden of HIV infection (CDC, 2009; Millet et al., 2007). There is a complexity to AAMSM as a subgroup that could explain the lingering questions researchers have yet to answer. Many studies have investigated complex issues such as the “down low” identity of men who secretly have sex with men and what it could mean for AAMSM and their participation in risky behaviors (Bond et al.,2009). However, studies have found that men who disclosed their sexual identity were more likely to be involved in higher sexual risk taking and also had higher rates of HIV infection (Xxxxxxxx et al., 2002; CDC, 2003). Disclosure of sexual identity for many MSM is a means to become part of the gay community and has played a role in the development of organizations focusing on fighting the growing rates of HIV (Xxxxxxxx et al., 2000). For most MSM however, disclosure can be associated with prejudice, social isolation, discrimination, and abuse (Xxxxxxxx et al., 2009; Xxxxxxxx et al., 2000; Xxxx et al., 2004;CDC, 2003). Within the gay community there is a social stigma surrounding gay men and therefore MSM as a whole (Xxxxxxx & Xxxx, 2000). Stereotypically, MSM are negatively portrayed in society and viewed as sexual deviants (Xxxxxxx & Xxxx, 2000; Xxxxxxxx et al., 2000). Not only do MSM fear prejudice regarding their sexual identity, but further ramifications, such as thoughts of loss of familial support, factors into their disclosure decisions (Xxxxxxxx et al., 2000; Xxxxxxxxxxx & Xxxxxxxx, 2009). Given these barriers, surprisingly this does not prevent individuals from disclosing their sexual orientation and openly being themselves. Many men have “come out of the closet;” however the majority of these men are white and highly educated (Xxxxxxxx et al., 2000). Xxxxxxxx et al. (2000) aimed to investigate the different context created for disclosure of sexual identity among AAMSM, who they describe as being “double minorities”(Xxxxxxxx et al., 2000). It would appear that disclosure takes on a different form for AAMSM (Xxxxxxxx et al., 2000). The Black experience creates complex divisions among AAMSM such as "homo thugz", bisexual, and down low (Xxxx et al., 2004). AAMSM create these non- heterosexual identities as a way to cope and shield themselves from the homophobia that exists within African American culture (Xxxxxxxx ...
Literature Review. This research sits at the intersection of criminological accounts of state violence and political violence, investigations of nation-building processes, studies of nationalism and associated commemorative practices, and critical approaches to transitional justice. This research is situated between these literature clusters in order to locate the End within the context of social relations and methods of governance in Sri Lanka. This approach necessitated an exploration of the relevant historical, socio-economic, political and cultural structures. This thesis aims to contribute to a growing literature base that combines political and institutional analysis with an interrogation of state violence and atrocity, the cultural foundations of power relations, and processes of militarisation and minority subjugation that operate in the service of Sinhala-Buddhist nationalism in Sri Lanka (de Xxx, 2007, 2012; de Xxx and Xxxxxxxx, 2012; xx Xxxxx, 2007; Xxxxxxxxxxx, 2011, 2013; Xxxxxxxxxxxxx and xx Xxxxx, 1998; Xxxxxx and Xxxxxxxxxxx, 1995). State crime was a central resource for my methodological approach (Xxxxx and Xxxx, 2006). The 9/11 attacks and the attendant extensions and abuses of state power have been a catalyst for “investments in the potential of human rights” by criminologists (Xxxxxx and Xxxxxx, 2013). Criminological research has become a component of an agenda of activism, litigation and scholarship in response to the ‘War on Terror’. State crime, a scholarship within the field that has long connected with human rights, engages with human rights reports as documentary evidence of state violence and victimhood, seeking “to expose violations when they occur” (Xxxxxxx, 2007: 190). Green and Xxxx (2004) define state crime as “state organised deviance involving the violation of human rights.” While human rights resources are relied upon, state crime includes critiques of the limiting, legalistic and hegemonic nature of rights regimes (Xxxxx, 1996; Xxxxxx and Xxxxxx, 2013). Analysis and reports by non-governmental organisations (NGOs), human rights organisations and the United Nations (UN) represented one primary source of information on the End in 2009, outside of the information provided by the government of Sri Lanka itself. XxXxxxxx (1984) would categorise these reports as an “alternative view”, outside of the state’s monopoly on coercive forces and control of the media. In 2012, the UN produced a self-critical report on its actions in Sri Lanka at the End...
Literature Review. This section provides a general overview of peace settlements by assessing the core literature in the field. It will thoroughly explore the features of a successful agreement that can serve as a foundation for sustainable peace and examine the factors that contribute to the success of some peace agreements, while others fail to sustain. Generally, conflict usually terminates either through peace agreement or other means, including when one side defeats or eliminates the other (Xxxxxx, 2010). Arguably, the peace agreement is an ideal means to settle a dispute as it is the concrete foundation for peace and if implemented in good faith leads to durable peace. Indeed, as Xxxxxx (2013) observed, there is a positive correlation between signing a peace agreement and durability of peace. Likewise, Fazal (2013, p.701) argues that “Peace agreement provides a window of accountability, where violation of the law can be tallied and punished”. However, little theoretical and empirical work has explored the fact that some peace agreements lead to durable peace, while others fail to sustain and even lead to a more severe war (Xxxxxx, 2003). Likewise, the literature that examines whether and how the content of the peace agreement matters in creating lasting peace is insufficient (Xxxxxx 2014; Xxxxxxx 2013; Xxxx 2013, Xxxxxxx and Xxxxxxx 2008). Since the first peace treaty, known as Treaty of Qadesh signed between Hittite Emperor, Hattusilis III and Xxxxxx XX of Egypt in 1269 BC, concluding a peace agreement following termination of hostilities was the norm of international relations for millennia (Fazal, 2013). The conclusion of the Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (VCLT) in 1969, has regulated this norm and the legal implications for concluding a treaty has, thus far, likely strengthened. According to the VCLT, treaties are legally binding instruments (Xxxxxx, 1992 as cited in Xxxx, 0000), and hence, require a strong commitment from the signatories to avoid the cost of noncompliance. As Xxxxxxxxxxx (p.40-110, 2007) noted, interstate conflicts are driven by incompatibilities over geopolitical, economic, and ideological interests as well as, due to fault in the balance of power. He continues to argue that these incompatibilities, can be transcended by dropping the demands by one side, horse-trading issues or swapping, dividing the contested value or the disputed territory, creating buffer zone between the disputants, creating shared rule, leaving the issues for the ...
Literature Review. A-E shall conduct a literature review to determine which species have been identified as special status by state, federal, and local resources agencies and organizations, and have a potential to occur on the project site or in the immediate vicinity. Sources to be reviewed include: (1) special status species lists from the California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG), United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and California Native Plant Society (CNPS); (2) database searches of the California Natural Diversity Database (CNDDB) and the Electronic Inventory of the CNPS; (3) the most recent Federal Register listing package and critical habitat determination for each federally Endangered or Threatened species potentially occurring on the project site; (4) the CDFG Annual Report on the status of California’s listed Threatened and Endangered plants and animals; and (5) other biological studies conducted in the vicinity of the project site.
Literature Review. This literature review provides the contextual background to this study. It summarizes the current literature on the relation of gender inequity to HIV risk, the factors shaping young women’s vulnerability to HIV in Kenya, and the social ecological risk factors for Kenyan youth. Compounding women’s higher biological susceptibility to HIV through penile-vaginal sex, the literature points to inequitable gender norms as fundamental drivers of HIV/AIDS in women and girls in SSA, and describes the need for large scale social structural HIV interventions that focus on gender. The literature also highlights a gap in understanding of the context-specific aspects of gender that are putting women at increased HIV risk in SSA, and a need to better understand how structural factors (social, economic, political, environmental) shape sexual behaviors in different contexts (Auerbach, Parkhurst, & Xxxxxxx, 2011; Xxxxxx et al., 2014). Greater understanding of both these themes is necessary for the creation of gender-focused, social structural HIV interventions. There is relatively limited literature available on these localized gender norms and structural factors that increase HIV risk among Kenyan youth. HIV/AIDS and Gender Inequity In 2014, there were approximately 16 million women globally living with HIV, comprising nearly half of all people living with HIV. However, 80% of these women lived in sub-Saharan Africa (UNAIDS, 2014). Speaking to the continued challenges of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, Executive Director of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), Xxxxxx Xxxxxx, said in 2010, “This epidemic unfortunately remains an epidemic of women” (UN, 2010). The reasons for this are both biological and social in nature. Women have a greater biological susceptibility to HIV infection through penile-vaginal sex, and this is even more pronounced in young women during adolescence, as they are more prone to cervical ectopy, which has been linked to increased acquisition of STIs (Xxxxxxxx, Xxxxxx, Xxx, Xxxxxx, & Xxxxx, 2015; Xxx, Xxxxx, & Xxxxx, 2006). Furthermore, the presence of other STIs eases the transmission of HIV in women (Xxxxxxxx et al., 2015). However, biology is only one aspect of women’s greater vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. Researchers have stated that understanding the gender roles and relations that are shaping women’s risk are crucial to understanding and addressing the HIV epidemic (Xxxxx, Peacock, Jewkes, & Xxxxxxx, 2008). The World Health Organizatio...
Literature Review. Report No. UMTRI-2015-5. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Kostyniuk, L.P., Blower, D., Molnar, L.J., Eby, D.W., St. Louis, R.M., & Zanier, N. (2014). Evaluation of the Michigan TACT Program. Report No. UMTRI-20014-24. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute. Eby, D.W., Molnar, L.J., Kostyniuk, L.P., St. Louis, R.M., Zanier, N., & Lepkowski, J. (2014). Feasibility, Health Impacts, and Perceptions of Lowering the BAC Standard in the US: Final Report. Atlanta., GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Eby, D.W., Molnar, L.J., Kostyniuk, L.P., St. Louis, R.M., & Zanier, N. (2014). Feasibility, Health Benefits, and Perceptions of Lowering the BAC Standard in the US: Interim Report. Atlanta., GA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Molnar, L.J., Eby, D.W., Zanier, N., Kostyniuk, L.P. & St. Louis, R. (2014). Phase 1 Final Report. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Transportation. Project Deliverable. Molnar, L.J., Eby, D.W., St. Louis, R., Zanier, N., & Kostyniuk, L.P. (2014). Analysis of Existing Education and Intervention Strategy Models. Lansing, MI: Michigan Department of Transportation. Project Deliverable. Eby, D.W., Molnar, L.J., Franzblau, A., Green, L., Green, P.A., Pollock, S., & Yates, F. (under review). Increasing Belt Use Among Part-Time Users: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Report No. DOT HS 810 XXX. Washington, DC: US Department of Transportation.
Literature Review. It is important to state a general background of researchers’ thoughts about grammar teaching in ESP. However, there is limited research as regards grammar teaching and learning in ESP framework. Though the research which has been done so far either in context of EGP or ESP positively highlighted grammar role in language learning and teaching for the success of learning language. The unanimous belief held based on reviewing the literature is that grammar knowledge has its own exclusive part in learning language and should not be ignored as it is interrelated to other aspects and skills of language taught in ESP classes. Chen (2016) claimed that the only factor that makes learning ESP complicated is lack of grammar knowledge. In line with this issue, Master (2008) stated that English language teachers should put in effort to learn how English grammar system works and to do this is to listen to their students when they ask for focus on form. Because in ESP classes students do not only need fluency in language that communicative method focuses a lot, but grammar will make students confident and secure to interact with native and non-native English speakers. In this matter, Ismail (2010) conducted a study using questionnaire and interview to elicit views of different ESP students in the UAE university. The result of the study revealed that ESP students held a very positive belief regarding grammar learning through a grammar model consist of confrontation, clarification, confirmation and consolidation stages (CCCC) and reflected a positive view towards explicit grammar teaching in ESP classes. Furthermore, Skenderi and Ejupi (2018) stated that grammar instruction in ESP classes is sometimes needed particularly in writing skill as learners can be conscious of their errors. They suggested that teachers should be well prepared for teaching grammar in class and use exercises as worksheets and writing exercises with grammar practice. Syvak (2018) stated that grammar competence enables learners to governor the way they organize words into sentences and paragraphs or in ESP communication situations.
Literature Review electronic copies of any collected documents or notes
Literature Review. The DISTRIBUTOR, at least once a year, will make a search of the local literature available and when a published adverse event or incident related to the PRODUCT or its components is found to be occurred in the TERRITORY, the DISTRIBUTOR will inform the MANUFACTURER with the timelines and form described in paragraph 5.1.2.
Literature Review. Introduction African American young women are at high risk of transmitting HIV and sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancy. African American college students specifically are at increased sexual risk. Various factors contribute to sexual decision- making among college students, some of which include religion, parental upbringing, and sexual education. It is of particular importance to understand the contributing factors to sexual decision-making among young Black women at a historically Black college. Thus, this study will explore the roles of religious upbringing, family, and sexual education in sexual decision-making among young Black women enrolled in an undergraduate Bachelor’s degree program. Background & Significance Health disparities have dramatically impacted Blacks throughout history in the United States. Both HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are highly prevalent among African Americans. Blacks have experienced a severe burden of HIV since the beginning of the epidemic (CDC, 2012). The Black population accounts for a disproportionate share of new HIV cases relative to their representation in the overall U.S. population (CDC, 2012). In 2010 African Americans accounted for 46% of all HIV diagnoses (CDC, 2012). Blacks continue to represent the largest proportion of new HIV cases racial groups (CDC, 2012). From 2007 to 2010 African Americans represented roughly 62% of new HIV diagnoses, the highest proportion of new HIV cases across all racial groups (CDC, 2012). Blacks also account for the lowest survival rate among those living with HIV and AIDS. In 2009, Blacks accounted for roughly 29% of deaths among individuals with HIV diagnoses and 23% of deaths among those with AIDS diagnoses (CDC, 2012). Blacks are also disproportionately impacted by STIs. According to data released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, racial inequities are highly prevalent in STI rates. In 2010, rates of chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis were highest in Blacks across all ethnic and racial groups (CDC, 2011). Rates of sexually transmitted infections are several times higher in Blacks compared to Whites (CDC, 2011). From 2009 to 2010 the rate of chlamydia increased 4% among Blacks, widening the gap in sexual health between Blacks and Whites (2011). Black women make up a subpopulation that is vulnerable to STI and HIV transmission. Among women, Blacks are most likely to be diagnosed with HIV compared to Hispanics and Whites (CDC, ...