Validity and Reliability Sample Clauses

Validity and Reliability. Having seen the results of the model it is now appropriate to discuss the validity in relation to the applied methodology. Most of the issues with regards to validity have to do with the data used. Especially when it comes to the skills required and the experience needed to perform jobs, the data sets do not contain all of the options a worker or job has in real life skill sets. As mentioned in „Competence and work experience‟ in Chapter 4 most of the workers posses a combination of either mechanics and hydraulics, or electrics and automation (PLS). There are a couple of service engineers that for instance have electrics and mechanics, or electrics and hydraulics. Even so, each worker has what is known a primary and secondary skill. Because of this, the data used comes mainly from the primary skills leaving either mechanics or electrics left. A job from a customer may require a service engineer with hydraulics or PLS background and would then, in the data set, be converted into mechanical or electrics. This simplification is based on the presuppose that the problem would be easier to model and formulate in AMPL. Only a few jobs require hydraulics or PLS, but not all of the workers with mechanical or electrician skills can perform these. Determining if a worker is able to perform the tasks required of him for a certain job is very difficult. Because of the lack of competency records the PC has to telephone each person to confirm whether or not he can perform the job described by the customer in the job pack. Even though it seems that a mechanical job can be performed by any service engineer with a mechanical background, there are some instances where this may not be the case, due to special circumstances. Because of this uncertainty the simplification to disregard this issue has been made, allowing every worker with the same skill as the job to be allocated to it without further ado. When dealing with large amount of data and manual labor, some input errors are usually made. In the table 2 there is a deviation of 3 days in the first data set and in the second data set 13 days. But because of the large number of days used in these sets both errors only result in 0.2% variation from one another. When it comes to the model and data set, because the model does not consider historical data, jobs with start dates before day 1 in the time period are not fully included. Nor are the jobs with finish dates later than day 45 as explained earlier. As a result a truly c...
AutoNDA by SimpleDocs
Validity and Reliability. ‌ The empirical research conducted included interviews, questionnaires as well as a case study on an actual property development project. This was done to establish and add to the reliability and validity of the study.
Validity and Reliability. 39 Plan for Data Collection ............................................................................................ 40 Plan for Data Analysis ............................................................................................... 41 Ethical Issues ............................................................................................................. 42 Summary.................................................................................................................... 43 CHAPTER 4: FINDINGS ..................................................................................................... 46 Participants’ Demographics....................................................................................... 47 Summer Success Program (Jump$tart and Wings) ....................................... 48
Validity and Reliability. Reliability and validity are major components of research that enhance the credibility of a study. The BMMRS and Bully Survey instruments were selected because they are both reliable and valid research instruments that have been widely used. Selection of the instruments provided reliability and validity strategies to increase the likelihood that the research would provide a strong contribution to the field of study through reliable findings. Clarifying researcher bias was used as a validity strategy to ensure readers understand the researcher’s position and assumptions from the outset of the study. By keeping in mind her passion for the topic, the researcher was very careful not to project bias. The researcher also incorporated member checking when conducting the study to promote the credibility of the research findings.
Validity and Reliability. 65 Data Analysis ....................................................................................................... 68
Validity and Reliability. Maximizing validity and reliability in qualitative work requires a researcher to be both reflexive about her own role in data collection and to provide rich data to confirm findings. In this section, I share my own perspective as the researcher and reflect the ways this perspective might have influenced the research process. I also discuss threats to reliability, internal validity, and external validity, and share measures I took to minimize these threats. Researcher’s perspective. Prior to beginning this study, I had worked with both schools in a peripheral manner, placing students from my university as tutors in one and supervising student teachers in the other. However, I had not personally met the teachers and students I recruited for this study. As a former teacher of ESOL for refugee and immigrant students, I witnessed a discontinuity between the experiences and skill sets of certain students and the expectations of the school, which positioned students as a problem to be solved. A product of Catholic schools that highlighted ideas of social justice and a family with immigrant roots, I believe in diversity as an asset rather than a liability. In multiple instances during my teaching career, this view differed from the ways in which schools and teachers saw refugee students – often because of the pressures placed on these schools and teachers to perform on standardized tests. These experiences and beliefs influenced my conceptualization of this study, in that I sought to understand schools with and without a specific mission to serve refugee students. My prior contact with the schools, my own educational philosophy, and my personal experiences may have predisposed me to see the data differently than another researcher. During the study, I acted mainly as an observer within classrooms, and asked teachers to see me as an observer rather than a participant. On occasion, students would ask me for help during independent work time, and I infrequently asked students about what they were learning or doing. As students were often curious about the information I was typing on my computer, I showed my notes and noted how I was writing down what happened in the class “like a play.” In classrooms where students did not understand their learning activity and were not being helped by an adult, I helped to explain the activity they were being asked to complete. This role and perspective opened me up to specific biases as a researcher. In the following sections, I di...
Validity and Reliability. The researcher determined from the Panorama Education Well-Being User’s Guide that current validity data is ongoing, but a final report will be published in 2021 with updated results further supporting convergent/discriminant validity of each scale. The Survey Checklist (Manifesto, 2018) evidencing how the survey was produced to include best practices in the science of survey design (Xxxxxxx & Xxxxxx Xx., 2018) and was available on the Panorama Education website. The User Guide states, “After designing an initial survey, we pilot-tested it in 100 schools, collecting initial data from over 25,000 students. Using these results and feedback from our pilot partners, we refined the survey to maximize its psychometric qualities and practical utility” (Education, P. ,2021, p. 3). The Panorama Education research team posits a pragmatic approach to validity and reliability because they hold that validity is a process (Gehlbach, 2015). Specifically, this process has three phases, purposeful design of the measure (Gehlbach & Xxxxxxxxxx, 2011); evaluation of the measure’s characteristics over time (Xxxxxxx, 1995); and the logical arguments stemming from the evidence to support or invalidate a claim (Xxxx, 1992; Xxxx, 2006). In sum, the pragmatic approach to validity and reliability employed by the CORE survey has established good evidence of these initial design aspects of validity by responding to four questions:
AutoNDA by SimpleDocs
Validity and Reliability. Validity is very important in conducting effective research because it determines the value of this research. In a qualitative research, the subjectivity of respondents usually lowers validity to some degree because of the limitation of scope of people’s knowledge. However, the validity of research can be addressed with the increase of depth of data collected, the subjects interviewed and their connection with the research themes and the objectivity of the researcher (Xxxxx, Xxxxxx & Xxxxxxxx 2007, p.133). In this research, I succeed in interviewing the management members of UiN and they are very much know this cooperation. A good research should have a very good quality of reliability. Reliability refers to the extent to which the data collected reflect the “truth”. The researcher will influence the reliability strongly because the objectivity is very hard to control during all the process of research. Researchers develop their own ideas in the process of doing research, with time pass, they would unavoidably put their own ideas or opinions into the research, which will destroy the reliability of the thesis. So, having known this, I attempt not to put too much my personal ideas into the interview and make sure the data are all from the respondents. For example, I seldom express my approval or disapproval towards respondents’ answer, and I will also try not to interrupt them or use two much facial expression.‌
Validity and Reliability. While there are many arguments about whether validity and reliability mean different things in quantitative and qualitative projects, there is agreement that these are important issues in both paradigms (X. Xxxxx et al., 2011; Xxxx & Xxxxxxx, 2005). Validity concerns the extent to which a study explores what it claims to, and therefore, the extent to which it is credible (Perakyla, 2004). Reliability concerns whether the claims made through data interpretation are grounded in the data (Xxxxx & Xxxxxxx, 2003). These issues are closely related, and as Xxxxx et al. have suggested, there is “some blurring of the edges between validity and reliability in the literature” (2011, p. 204). In this study reliability and validity are addressed in several ways. The methods used are consistent with the ontological, epistemological and axiological perspectives taken in this study. For example, as outlined in section 3.2.1, knowledge is understood to be socially constructed for the purposes of this study, therefore research tools were used that collect and generate socially constructed data. One potential limitation of this study is the extent to which people who do not participate in PES might understand what PES is and how PES practices work enough to discuss it. This problem was addressed through the inclusion of accompanied visits to PES activities and through the provision of concrete examples of PES activities for participants to engage with in discussions. In these ways, therefore, the research process can be said to be valid because it examines the phenomena it claims to. One limitation regarding the reliability of the data collected was the potential positive bias in participants responses to the accompanied visits involved in this study. Since I organised the visits, participants may have tried to be more positive in their feedback than they might have been otherwise. Furthermore, by the time the visits were conducted I had spent between two and six months with the participants involved and was clearly seen as an ‘insider’ to PES, as well as someone they had befriended, and may not have wanted to upset. This potential reliability problem was addressed through critical reflection on their feedback and the comparison of their visit feedback with the recordings, field notes and photographs from the visits, as well as by comparison with the other data collected for this study. The reliability of this study was therefore developed through the processes of triangulat...

Related to Validity and Reliability

  • Validity and Severability The invalidity or unenforceability of any provision of this Agreement shall not affect the validity or enforceability of any other provision of this Agreement, which shall remain in full force and effect.

  • Validity and Binding Nature Each of this Agreement and each other Loan Document to which any Loan Party is a party is the legal, valid and binding obligation of such Person, enforceable against such Person in accordance with its terms, subject to bankruptcy, insolvency and similar laws affecting the enforceability of creditors’ rights generally and to general principles of equity.

  • Validity and Construction The validity and construction of this Agreement shall be governed by the laws of the State of Utah.

  • Authority and Validity 27 5.3 No Breach or Violation.................................... 28 5.4 Litigation................................................ 29 5.5

  • Invalidity and Waiver If any portion of this Agreement is held invalid or inoperative, then so far as is reasonable and possible the remainder of this Agreement shall be deemed valid and operative, and, to the greatest extent legally possible, effect shall be given to the intent manifested by the portion held invalid or inoperative. The failure by either party to enforce against the other any term or provision of this Agreement shall not be deemed to be a waiver of such party’s right to enforce against the other party the same or any other such term or provision in the future.

  • Validity and Binding Effect This Agreement has been duly and validly executed and delivered by each Loan Party, and each other Loan Document which any Loan Party is required to execute and deliver on or after the date hereof will have been duly executed and delivered by such Loan Party on the required date of delivery of such Loan Document. This Agreement and each other Loan Document constitutes, or will constitute, legal, valid and binding obligations of each Loan Party which is or will be a party thereto on and after its date of delivery thereof, enforceable against such Loan Party in accordance with its terms, except to the extent that enforceability of any of such Loan Document may be limited by bankruptcy, insolvency, reorganization, moratorium or other similar laws affecting the enforceability of creditors’ rights generally or limiting the right of specific performance.

  • Invalidity and Severability If any provision of this Agreement shall be found by any court or administrative body of competent jurisdiction to be invalid or unenforceable the invalidity or unenforceability of such provision shall not affect the other provisions of this Agreement and all provisions not affected by such invalidity or unenforceability shall remain in full force and effect. The parties hereby agree to attempt to substitute for any invalid or unenforceable provision a valid or enforceable provision which achieves to the greatest extent possible the economic legal and commercial objectives of the invalid or unenforceable provision.

  • Review of legality and data minimisation (a) The data importer agrees to review the legality of the request for disclosure, in particular whether it remains within the powers granted to the requesting public authority, and to challenge the request if, after careful assessment, it concludes that there are reasonable grounds to consider that the request is unlawful under the laws of the country of destination, applicable obligations under international law and principles of international comity. The data importer shall, under the same conditions, pursue possibilities of appeal. When challenging a request, the data importer shall seek interim measures with a view to suspending the effects of the request until the competent judicial authority has decided on its merits. It shall not disclose the personal data requested until required to do so under the applicable procedural rules. These requirements are without prejudice to the obligations of the data importer under Clause 14(e).

  • Authorization; Validity and Effect of Agreement The Company has the requisite corporate power and authority to execute, deliver and perform its obligations under this Agreement and to consummate the Merger. The execution and delivery of this Agreement by the Company and the performance by the Company of its obligations hereunder and the consummation of the Merger have been duly authorized by its board of directors and shareholders and all other necessary company action on the part of the Company and no other company proceedings on the part of the Company are necessary to authorize this Agreement and the Merger. This Agreement has been duly and validly executed and delivered by the Company and, assuming that it has been duly authorized, executed and delivered by the other parties hereto, constitutes a legal, valid and binding obligation of the Company, enforceable against it in accordance with its terms, subject to the effects of bankruptcy, insolvency, fraudulent conveyance, reorganization, moratorium and other similar laws relating to or affecting creditors' rights generally, general equitable principles (whether considered in a proceeding in equity or at law) and an implied covenant of good faith and fair dealing.

  • Authorization, Validity and Effect of Agreements Each of Purchaser ------------------------------------------------ and Merger Sub has the requisite corporate power and authority to execute and deliver this Agreement and the Ancillary Documents and to consummate the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby. The execution and delivery of this Agreement and the Ancillary Documents and the consummation by Purchaser and Merger Sub of the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby have been duly and validly authorized by the respective boards of directors of Purchaser and Merger Sub and by Purchaser as the sole stockholder of Merger Sub and no other corporate proceedings on the part of Purchaser or Merger Sub are necessary to authorize this Agreement and the Ancillary Documents or to consummate the transactions contemplated hereby and thereby. This Agreement has been, and any Ancillary Documents at the time of execution will have been, duly and validly executed and delivered by Purchaser and Merger Sub, and (assuming this Agreement and such Ancillary Documents each constitutes a valid and binding obligation of the Company) constitutes and will constitute the valid and binding obligations of each of Purchaser and Merger Sub, enforceable in accordance with their respective terms.

Time is Money Join Law Insider Premium to draft better contracts faster.