Advantage. For a measure to constitute state aid within the meaning of Art. 61(1) it must 26 confer upon the undertaking an advantage that it would not have had under nor- mal market conditions. The financial situation of the undertaking after the mea- sure must be compared with the financial situation had the measure not been im- plemented.29 The concept of an advantage is an objective notion. It is the finan- cial effects of the measure, which have to be assessed in order to determine whether it constitutes an advantage within the meaning of Art. 61(1).30 A classic example of an advantage is a grant of cash. The notion of an advan- 27 tage is however, much wider. In principle, any economic advantage flowing to the undertaking from state resources can constitute a form of state aid within the meaning of Art. 61(1). This includes tax exemptions and other tax breaks, loans and guarantees not provided on market terms or transactions such as the sale of publicly held property or other assets, or the purchase by public authorities of goods or services on more beneficial terms than what would be acceptable to a rational market economy operator. Transactions carried out on market terms do not fall under Art. 61(1). For in- 28 stance where public authorities sell an asset, the buyer is not considered an aid recipient by the mere fact that it is buying the asset from a public authority. If the public entity is acting as a market economy operator and, in particular, sells the asset at market price, no advantage is transferred to the buyer. This is re- ferred to as the market economy operator (MEO) principle.31 Thus when a 28 ESA has on numerous occasions considered whether different transactions carried out by the publicly owned Icelandic power company Landsvirkjun were imputable to the Icelandic State, see ESA Decisions No 391/11/COL and 392/11/COL, both of 13.12.2011 and ESA Decision 543/14/COL, 10.12.2014. ESA did not conclude on the question of imputability in any of these cases. 29 Case 173/73, 2.7.1974, Italy v Commission, at para. 17. 30 Case C-559/12 P, 3.4.2014, France v Commission, at para. 94. public authority acts as a private entity it is treated as a private entity. This is a result of the neutrality of EEA law as to public and private ownership. However, the MEO principle has a wider application in that it also applies in situations where public entities use their exclusively public competencies, such as afford- ing a tax break to a given undertaking.32 29 The ...
Advantage. In the following, a (tj, nmax)-attacker is an attacker A that runs in time at most tj and never fills more than nmax virtual cells with data (not equal to ). The attacker wins the forward secret encrypted RAM security game if she correctly guesses the random bit b in the end. The advantage of against a forward secret encrypted RAM scheme eram is defined by Adv eram enc-ram
Advantage. In the following, a (t, qc, nmax)-attacker is an attacker A that runs in time at most t, makes at most qc challenge queries, and never produces a group with more than nmax members. The attacker wins the MKA security game user-mult if he correctly guesses the random bit b in the end and the safety predicate user-safe evaluates to true .on the queries m. ade by the attacker. The advantage of A against
Advantage. You want to foster product innovation with the Licensed Programs. You need support that helps You leverage Your expertise. The ADVANTAGE package is the level of support to help You optimize user productivity. The ADVANTAGE package includes the following Support Services: Distribution & download On demand media ordering and Electronic Download On demand media ordering and electronic download will provide Your company with the latest Licensed Program Releases and Maintenance Delivery. Customer know-how enablement Self Support Web tools Allow access to online self-services for a wealth of support tools and Licensed Program information. This online service is available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week (subject to temporary unavailability for system maintenance). Service Request management Defect and Non Defect Management You can go online to submit Your incidents, check their status, manage Your support account and create a single view of all of Your Service Requests and share it with everyone in Your company. This online service is available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week (subject to temporary unavailability for system maintenance). Defect and Non Defect Management does not include: enhancement requests and the development of in- depth methodologies (for example, detailed API consulting). Support for the development of customization and/or new applications using Licensed Programs may be arranged under a separate agreement (e.g Developer Support offer).
Advantage. Each Lender agrees with the other Lenders that if at any time it shall obtain any Advantage over the other Lenders or any thereof in respect of the Advances it will purchase from such other Lender or Lenders, for cash and at par, such additional participation in the Advances owing to the other or others as shall be necessary to nullify the Advantage. If any such Advantage resulting in the purchase of an additional participation as aforesaid shall be recovered in whole or in part from the Lender receiving the Advantage, each such purchase shall be rescinded, and the purchase price restored (with interest and other charges if and to the extent actually incurred by the Lender receiving the Advantage) ratably to the extent of the recovery. During the existence of any Potential Default, any payment (whether made voluntarily or involuntarily, by offset of any deposit or other indebtedness or otherwise) of any indebtedness owing by the Borrower to any Lender shall be applied to the Obligations owing to that Lender until the same shall have been paid in full before any thereof shall be applied to other indebtedness owing to that Lender.
Advantage. If these individuals use the plan administrator’s national preferred provider 10 organization in their area, services will be covered at Benefit Level Two. If a national preferred 11 provider is not available in their area, services will be covered at Benefit Level Two through any 12 other provider available in their area. If the national preferred provider organization is available 13 but not used, benefits will be paid at the POS level described in paragraph “i” below. All terms 14 and conditions outlined in the Summary of Benefits will apply.