Advantage. For a measure to constitute state aid within the meaning of Art. 61(1) it must 26 confer upon the undertaking an advantage that it would not have had under nor- mal market conditions. The financial situation of the undertaking after the mea- sure must be compared with the financial situation had the measure not been im- plemented.29 The concept of an advantage is an objective notion. It is the xxxxx- cial effects of the measure, which have to be assessed in order to determine whether it constitutes an advantage within the meaning of Art. 61(1).30 A classic example of an advantage is a grant of cash. The notion of an advan- 27 tage is however, much wider. In principle, any economic advantage flowing to the undertaking from state resources can constitute a form of state aid within the meaning of Art. 61(1). This includes tax exemptions and other tax breaks, loans and guarantees not provided on market terms or transactions such as the sale of publicly held property or other assets, or the purchase by public authorities of goods or services on more beneficial terms than what would be acceptable to a rational market economy operator. Transactions carried out on market terms do not fall under Art. 61(1). For in- 28 stance where public authorities sell an asset, the buyer is not considered an aid recipient by the mere fact that it is buying the asset from a public authority. If the public entity is acting as a market economy operator and, in particular, sells the asset at market price, no advantage is transferred to the buyer. This is re- ferred to as the market economy operator (MEO) principle.31 Thus when a 28 ESA has on numerous occasions considered whether different transactions carried out by the publicly owned Icelandic power company Landsvirkjun were imputable to the Icelandic State, see ESA Decisions No 391/11/COL and 392/11/COL, both of 13.12.2011 and ESA Decision 543/14/COL, 10.12.2014. ESA did not conclude on the question of imputability in any of these cases. 29 Case 173/73, 2.7.1974, Italy v Commission, at para. 17. 30 Case C-559/12 P, 3.4.2014, France v Commission, at para. 94. public authority acts as a private entity it is treated as a private entity. This is a result of the neutrality of EEA law as to public and private ownership. However, the MEO principle has a wider application in that it also applies in situations where public entities use their exclusively public competencies, such as afford- ing a tax break to a given undertaking.32 29 The ...
Advantage. Give an economic or other advantage to a party or a party's attorney, representative, agent, insurer or employee without offering the advantage to all parties or fail to offer comparable services, prices or financial terms to all parties, except that different credit terms may be offered based on payment experience and creditworthiness; [PL 2013, c. 298, §1 (NEW).]
Advantage. In the following, a (tj, nmax)-attacker is an attacker A that runs in time at most tj and never fills more than nmax virtual cells with data (not equal to ). The attacker wins the forward secret encrypted RAM security game if she correctly guesses the random bit b in the end. The advantage of against a forward secret encrypted RAM scheme eram is defined by Adv eram enc-ram
Advantage. In the following, a (t, qc, nmax)-attacker is an attacker A that runs in time at most t, makes at most qc challenge queries, and never produces a group with more than nmax members. The attacker wins the MKA security game user-mult if he correctly guesses the random bit b in the end and the safety predicate user-safe evaluates to true .on the queries x. xxx by the attacker. The advantage of A against
Advantage. You want to xxxxxx product innovation with the Licensed Programs. You need support that helps You leverage Your expertise. The ADVANTAGE package is the level of support to help You optimize user productivity. The ADVANTAGE package includes the following Support Services: Distribution & download On demand media ordering and Electronic Download On demand media ordering and electronic download will provide Your company with the latest Licensed Program Releases and Maintenance Delivery. Customer know-how enablement Self Support Web tools Allow access to online self-services for a wealth of support tools and Licensed Program information. This online service is available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week (subject to temporary unavailability for system maintenance). Service Request management Defect and Non Defect Management You can go online to submit Your incidents, check their status, manage Your support account and create a single view of all of Your Service Requests and share it with everyone in Your company. This online service is available 24 hours per day, 7 days per week (subject to temporary unavailability for system maintenance). Defect and Non Defect Management does not include: enhancement requests and the development of in- depth methodologies (for example, detailed API consulting). Support for the development of customization and/or new applications using Licensed Programs may be arranged under a separate agreement (e.g Developer Support offer).
Advantage. In the following, a (t, c, n)-adversary is an adversary that runs in time at most t, makes at most c challenge queries, and never produces a group with more than n members. The adversary wins the CGKA-FA security game if it correctly guesses the random bit b at the end and the safety predicate P evaluates to true on the queries made by the adversary. The advantage of with safety predicate P against a CGKA-FA protocol CGKA-FA is defined by Adv (A) := Pr[A wins] − . CGKA-FA,P 1 cgka−fa−na 2 Definition (Non-adaptive CGKA-FA security). A continuous group key- agreement protocol with flexible authorization CGKA-FA is non-adaptively (t, c, n, P, ε)-secure if, for all (t, c, n)-attackers, A ≤ AdvCGKA-FA,P ( ) ε. cgka−fa−na 6 TreeKEM∗Σ In this section, we describe all the algorithms involved in the protocol and ex- plain the concrete TreeKEM∗Σ protocol in detail. We instantiate the CGKA-FA as TreeKEMΣ∗ , as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. Our proposed protocol TreeKEM∗Σ differs from Alwen et al.’s CGKA protocol RTreeKEM [3, 4] in two ways. First, by combining the ratcheting signature scheme Σ with RTreeKEM, we add a function to generate the ratcheting signature σ for each control message output by each algorithm, and the processing proc verifies the signature first. In this way, the group members can be sure that the GM has executed the algorithm by adding the signature only to the GM’s control message. Second, in Alwen et al.’s algorithms of group creation and adding a group member, the pk generated by the PKI is queried, but in our version, the pk generated by the GM is queried, and in the same way in proc, the sk is queried and obtained from the GM. In this way, the system can be configured without trusted third-party entities.
Advantage. 3 A combination of service consumables for your machines and traction batteries for Sweepmaster and Scrubmaster models. Check of charger and associated power cables.*