Geology. An environmental geoscientist needs an excellent understanding of the materials from which the Earth is made, the processes acting on and within the Earth, and Earth structures. The student should also have learned the history of the changing Earth through time, and how the rock record can be interpreted to provide evidence of these changes. The following competency areas will allow majors to identify and solve problems in the geosciences: Competency Area 1: Formation Of The Solar System And Earth Competency Area 2: Plate Tectonics And Earthquakes Competency Area 3: Minerals Competency Area 4: Igneous Rocks And Environments Competency Area 5: Weathering, Soil, And Mass Wasting Competency Area 6: Sedimentary Rocks And Environments Competency Area 7: Metamorphic Rocks And Environments Competency Area 8: Deformation And The Continents Competency Area 9: Surface Water And Groundwater Competency Area 10: Climate, Glaciers, Wind, And Coastal Processes Competency Area 11: Geologic Time And Rock Correlation Competency Area 12: Stratigraphy Competency Area 13: Sedimentary Environments Competency Area 14: Origin And Diversity Of Life Competency Area 15: Evolution Competency Area 16: The Precambrian Competency Area 17: Early Paleozoic Life And Earth History Competency Area 18: Late Paleozoic Life And Earth History Competency Area 19: Mesozoic Life And Earth History Competency Area 20: Cenozoic Life And Earth History Competency Area 21: Primate And Human Evolution Competency areas #1-11 are often taught as part of a Physical Geology course. Additional competencies in #11-21 are often taught as part of a Historical Geology course. See Appendix C: Competencies for Preparation in Geology.
Geology. During the quaternary era a number of underwater volcanic emissions reached the surface of the water to form a new archipelago. The volcanic activity of the Columbretes is associated with a subduction zone where the ocean’s crust is gradually being worn away. This means that that the volcanic field of the Columbretes could be considered as being per- manently active, but there is no reference to the later eruptions which gave rise to the islands. The Columbretes islands rest on an extensive vol- canic field forty metres long and about fifteen wide. They are located on a continental platform zone close to the slope, at a depth of sixty or seventy metres, though to the east this quickly drops to depths of a thousand metres. This started to be formed ten million years ago with underwater emis- sions of a greenish-grey coloured phonolitic magma. Tightly welded and compacted reddish coloured clinkers were deposited on these, and on top of these small glassy coulees of very dark phonolites about fifty centimetres thick settled. A million years ago the period of volcanic eruptions started, characterised by more basic magmas (basanites) in underwater discharges. The best- preserved volcanoes of this sort are the Illa Grossa, Senyoreta, Mascarat and Mancolibre. The volcano of the Illa Grossa was built in four stages. The first two involved very violent underwater explosions, with fragments being hurled long distances. After the withdrawal of the sea from the crater zone, a further episode generated pyroclastic materials (lapilli) and bombs of varying sizes. These are very dark materials located in certain areas of the Illa Grossa, Mascarat and Senyoreta. The crater zone was again flooded by the sea and there was a new volcanic period, characterised by pyroclastic deposits, particularly significant in the barracks zone. The materials forming the islands are mainly basan- ites- basic volcanic rocks characterised by the pres- ence of pyroxene and olivine (from one million to three hundred thousand years)- and phonolytes, - volcanic rocks of the Miocene era, from eight to ten million years of age, characterised by the plentiful feldspars and feldsparoids. Typical forms due to the erosion in Columbretes's volcanic rock
Geology. Deposit type, geological setting and style of mineralisation. • The Cape Bedford / Cape Flattery region of north Queensland is dominated by an extensive Quaternary sand mass and dune field that stretches inland from the present coast for approximately 10km and extends 50km from north to south. • Mineralisation comprises elongate parabolic sand dunes of silica sand, with scattered zones of HM enrichment from wind deflation and possibly buried/preserved beach strandlines. Drill hole Information • A summary of all information material to the understanding of the exploration results including a tabulation of the following information for all Material drill holes: o easting and northing of the drill hole collar o elevation or RL (Reduced Level – elevation above sea level in metres) of the drill hole collar o dip and azimuth of the hole o down hole length and interception depth • No systematic drilling has been undertaken, therefore not applicable at this time. Criteria JORC Code explanation Commentary o hole length. • If the exclusion of this information is justified on the basis that the information is not Material and this exclusion does not detract from the understanding of the report, the Competent Person should clearly explain why this is the case. Data aggregation methods • In reporting Exploration Results, weighting averaging techniques, maximum and/or minimum grade truncations (eg cutting of high grades) and cut-off grades are usually Material and should be stated. • Where aggregate intercepts incorporate short lengths of high grade results and longer lengths of low grade results, the procedure used for such aggregation should be stated and some typical examples of such aggregations should be shown in detail. • The assumptions used for any reporting of metal equivalent values should be clearly stated. • Not applicable to reconnaissance sampling. Relationship • These relationships are particularly important in the reporting of between Exploration Results. mineralisation • If the geometry of the mineralisation with respect to the drill hole widths and angle is known, its nature should be reported. intercept • If it is not known and only the down hole lengths are reported, there lengths should be a clear statement to this effect (eg ‘down hole length, true width not known’). • Not applicable to reconnaissance sampling. Diagrams • Appropriate maps and sections (with scales) and tabulations of intercepts should be included for any significant discovery being...
Geology. The ocean beach of Long Beach is located in the Long Beach sub-cell of the Columbia River littoral cell🕈. The majority of the Long Beach Peninsula—including the jurisdictional shorelands🕈 of the city of Long Beach—is an accreted🕈 sand bar created primarily from sediments transported by the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean, then transported northward by xxxxxxxxx🕈 ocean currents. A comparative review of historic aerial photos reveals the amount of accretion since 1889 has been just under 2,000 feet in total, and accretion has averaged approximately 15.7 feet per year. Soils. Accretion occurred in parallel north south waves from the east accreting to the west, and so the oldest soils occur on the eastern shore along Willapa Bay, and the youngest soils occur on the western shore along the ocean beach. Also, because of this pattern of deposition, soils tend to trend in north-south bands. Nearly all of the soils of the Long Beach area are sand in nature,
Geology. Xxxxxxx Field is located at the northern end of the Santa Xxxxx Valley Basin, about I mile south of San Francisco Bay. The Santa Xxxxx Valley Basin is a Pliocene-age, large, northwest-trending structural depression between the San Andreas and Hayward faults. The basin is bordered on the west by the Santa Xxxx Mountains and on the east by the Diablo Range. Regionally, the Santa Xxxxx Valley contains up to 1,500 feet of interbedded alluvial, fluvial, and estuarine deposits (Iwamura, 1980). Locally, these sediments consist of varying combinations of clay, silt, sand, and gravel that represent interfingering of estuarine and fluvial depositional environments during the late Pleistocene and Holocene epochs. The interfingering of fluvial and estuarine sediments in southern San Francisco Bay is related to world-wide fluctuations in sea level during glacial and interglacial episodes of the late Quaternary period (Tetra Tech, 1998c). The fluvial sediments were derived from the Santa Xxxx highlands west of the basin and deposited on an alluvial plain bounded by alluvial fan deposits to the west and baylands to the northeast (Iwamura, 1980). Surface geologic maps indicate that alluvial fan deposits extend toward the basin approximately to U.S. Highway 101, which forms the southern boundary of Xxxxxxx Field. Shallow deposits on Xxxxxxx Field are branching river and flood plain deposits. Estuarine deposits are found at the extreme northern end of Xxxxxxx Field.
Geology. 1.1.5 Permafrost characteristics (ground temperature, ground ice content, and active layer thickness) and distribution
Geology. The Westport landfill is situated in a former tidal marshland, consisting of organic silty clay. The lithology encountered during the drilling and sampling of the 24 monitor wellx xxxealed the following: o In those areas not covered with refuse, approximately 5 feet of fill material lies over the former (native) ground surface. The native soil is a soft, moderately plastic, silty clay of relatively low permeability that is very moist to wet. METAL CONCENTRATIONS DETECTED IN GROUNDWATER COLLECTED IN JULY AND AUGUST, 1989 (17 CAM/TTLC METHOD) METAL CONCENTRATION (ppm) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Monitoring Well Location and Number Reporting In Refuse Beneath Refuse Metal Limit (ppm) P-1A S-4A S-5 MW-1 MW-2 P-18 X-00 X-0 ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Geology. Describe the regional and site specific geology including stratigraphy and structure. Include cross sections to show the subsurface stratigraphy.