Poverty Sample Clauses

Poverty. According to Voss (1999), the underlying causes of commercial sexual exploitation of children are diverse and include economic injustice and disparities between rich and the poor, large scale migration and urbanization. Of the articles reviewed, 63% offered poverty as a theme in the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). Magazine and newspaper articles were more likely to identify the factors that induce CSEC. For example, Time magazine and The New York Times newspaper were sources of non- empirically based information that consistently identified poverty as a factor leading children into commercial sex. About 92% of the empirically based articles offered no theoretical orientation. In addition, 45% of thearticles with the theme of poverty included a methodological orientation. Ninety percent of the articles are written by males.From this theme it was observed that children who are most likely to be exploited are within minority groups. Minority groups are most targeted; they come from low economic backgrounds. In the United States; however, many children from middle class background are more frequently sexually exploited. Children in the United States from low economic backgrounds are sexually exploited because of lack of resources and middle class children are sexually exploited because of the culture in which they live in and not necessarily because of poverty making them the most targeted group.Poverty is a major factor that nevertheless leads children into the world of prostitution, as noted by Willis & levy (2002). The majority of these children who are sexually exploited come from poor families. Poverty, as observed by Fraley (2005), is the context in which children are forced, sold, tricked, lured, kidnapped, or trafficked into commercial sexual activities. By the term “poverty” it does not mean that all children living in poor conditions undertake this work; it is a factor; however, that pushes these children into prostitution. The 1st World Congress Against CSEC (2001) suggests that reductions in welfare and minimum wage levels are among the many pressures that lead children to work and live on the streets. Poverty creates the necessary conditions for children to become victims of CSEC. As noted by the Stockholm Congress Panel Report in some Latin American cities mothers as young as 12 or 13 years old who cannot support their children may turn into prostitution. Poverty appears to be the main reason that children enter the sex trade; ...
Poverty. The overall evidence points towards the existence of a negative relationship between poverty and remittances (Lucas 2004). Although there may be some short run decline in agricultural production (due to labour departure) wage increases for those staying behind may lead to poverty reduction. The idea is that wage increases for the labour force which stays behind may compensate for the loss of agricultural production in the short run due to the departure of labour. However this will not be the case if migrants take capital with them8 or if the loss of labour leads to a reduction in output. A theory which treats migration as a livelihood strategy is the new labour economics of migration literature (Stark and Taylor, 1991). According to that theory, remittances may provide some solution in terms of liquidity and stimulate technological investment and change, in the presence of liquidity and credit constraints. When migration is seen as a household strategy to fight against liquidity constraints and various marketsimperfections, remittances may be proven beneficial for the poor even if there is a substantial loss in production (and thus output reduction) following migration (Taylor 2001). In particular remittances may compensate for the lost output by adding directly to household income and by offering households the possibility to invest in productive activities. According to Taylor and Wyatt (1996), community characteristics which enhance out going migration may also discourage productive investments. Despite the lack of appropriate data there are certain studies which try to assess the extent to which migration may be a poverty reducing strategy. Adams and Page (2003) find that a 10% increase in migration (share of migrants out of population) reduces the population living with less than $1 per day by 1.9% (and a 10% increase in remittances sent back, has an impact of 1.6% on the population 8 This issue of migrants taking some or all of their capital with them is a crucial one in the literature. Models of migration make specific assumptions about it, and migration outcomes depend on whether some of the migrants’ capital stays at home. Physical capital is more likely to remain in the country of origin, in the case of temporary migration, when migrants intend to return after a short stay abroad.living with less than $1 per day). In a later paper, which takes into account the endogeneity of remittances and/or migration, the same authors find that the IV estima...
Poverty. Connective to all the above is the matter of poverty. Conceptualizing poverty is not an easy task since even the word itself “has different meanings, for different people, in different places, at different times” (Wordsworth et al., 2007, p. 9). Poverty is so multi– faceted that it is difficult to produce a single definition of it. Nevertheless, according with Hagenaars and De Vos (1988), all definitions of poverty can be placed into one of the following three categories:• Poverty is having less than an objectively defined, absolute minimum • Poverty is having less than others in society • Poverty is feeling you do not have enough to get along In the first category Hagenaars and De Vos (1988) include the Basic Needs Approach: a method which defines poverty by calculating the minimum amount in terms of “basic needs”, such as food, clothing and housing. In the second category they include the definition ofRelative Deprivation with Respect to Various Commodities”, under which households can be defined as poor when they lack certain commodities that are common in the society they live in (ibid, p.215). Deprivation could be understood as “denoting the lack of material conditions and services generally held to be essential in the development of children’s well-being” (Wordsworth et al., 2007, p.13). These may include food, safe drinking water, sanitation facilities, health, shelter, education and perhaps many more (ibid.). Deprivation is one of the basic dimensions in poverty conceptualization according with NGOs like the Christian Children’s Fund (CCF), UNICEF and the Childhood Poverty Research and Policy Centre (CHIP) (Minujin, Delamonica, Davidziuk, & Gonzalez, 2006; Wordsworth et al., 2007).In these three categories mentioned above, poverty according with the first one is absolute, according with the second one is relative and according with the third one it may be absolute or relative, or even somewhere in between (Hagenaars & De Vos, 1988). Absolute poverty “counts” people as poor when their income is below apoverty line which is pre-established (Minujin et al., 2006). Relative poverty measures on the other hand, are more fluctuate and they have poverty lines that are adjusted as total income in a given country. Both the absolute and relative poverty methodologies are part of the monetary poverty approach that is income based (ibid.).Most people connect poverty solely with money: a low income or not any income at all is the main factor and the “trademark...
Poverty. No. of beneficiaries (000.000) 12 % beneficiaries who are women 40 % beneficiaries who are poor 65 No. of primary school rehabilitated 700
Poverty. Nearly 80% of the population lives in rural areas and, especially in remote areas, the people are among the poorest in the country. According to 2001 figures, poor households make up 17% of the population; most of them are in rural, mountainous, and remote and border areas. The poor often do not have land or are pushed to live in impoverished, steep and infertile lands. Economic activities are mostly limited to agriculture, forestry and fishing, as they lack long-term capital to invest in the development of other livelihood options. Poverty thus leads to unsustainable resource utilization and resource degradation. In the past ten years, significant achievements have been made in poverty reduction, improving greatly the living standards of a major portion of the population. Over two million poor households have been raised above the poverty line.
Poverty. Poverty has been from time immemorial; it is as old as the world. All over the world, especially in the developing nations, the focus now is on poverty eradication. Could poverty be eradicated? If it could, what will eradicate it? When will it be eradicated, 2015 or 2020 or beyond?Contrary to peoplesnotion, poverty cannot be eradicated through drinks. What drinks do is to make the uninformed temporarily forgets his misery. It cripples normalcy and promotes uncommon stupidity. Teasingly, the mother of King Lemuel has this to say: "Let him drink and forget his poverty, and remember his misery no more” (Proverbs 31:7). Anyone who reads from verses 1 to 6 of Proverbs 31 will not, but consent that this good mother is saying the wise King should abhor drinks as poison. In order to “Plead the cause of the poor and needy” (Proverbs 31:9), the King should abstain from drinks.By creation poor people are bound to exist in every society and community. God didn’t promise wealth and riches to everybody on earth, but daily bread. To wake up very early and sleep very last is not a guarantee of riches (Proverbs 10:22). Technological advancement does not eliminate poverty; else there won’t be poor people in advanced nations. That there are poor folks in developed nations is an eloquent testimony to the fact that poor people will not cease to exist as long as this earth planet subsists. To talk glowingly of poverty eradication is a 21st century exaggeration, and misguided zealousness that could lead to misplacement of priority and misdirected and procrastinated project design and execution. Reduction is not the same thing as eradication. What the advanced nations have done is to reduce poverty to the barest minimum, which developing nations should endeavour to attain. What technology does is to create comfort, ease, speed and precision to a reasonable degree. Anyone who thinks technology has removal poverty or can do that is a day dreamer. No technology at present is designed to eradicate poverty. Rather what is closely observed is that it throws unskilful people in their millions out of job. It is undeniable fact that technology created highly skilful jobs for few skilful people. He who claims that poverty can be eradicated is poor of facts and figures, both from history and present day reality. There is spiritual and physical poverty. One who is destituteof sound faith is spiritually poor, which is not our focus in this paper.God did not promise at any time that there wo...
Poverty. The researchers used a combination of what (Mwabu et al, 2000) identified as determinants of poverty at the national level in Kenya to deduce an overview of the poverty indicatorspresent among the patients respondents. The determinants of poverty that were used i n this study included: mean age, size of household, place of residence (rural or urban) and level of schooling. The mean age of the respondents was 39 years, this age group is considered to be energetic and productive. However, 179 (70.2%) of the respon dents worked in the informal sector compared to 76 (29.8%) respondents who worked in the formal sector implying most of the respondents in the informal sector were aged about 39 years. The respondents in the informal sector stated they worked as casual la bourers, hawkers, farm hands, house helps and jua kali artisans among other jobs. These jobs were not only reported to be erratic but considered to have a low monetary compensation and majority were deemed to be poor in this respect. The education level of the respondents was spread over the spectrum but majority of the respondents had only attained secondary education with a few having completed tertiary education. A large number of the respondents had only attained primary level educationwhich was con sidered to be basic, and by implication it does not offer the positive opportunities associated with good education such as economic empowerment and in effect many of these respondents were deemed to be poor. Most households were composed of 4, 5, 6 and 7 members with 37, 49, 45 and 42 respondents respectively. The modal household size was 5 members. According to the Kenya Interim Poverty Paper 2000 – 2003 large households (6.4 members) were considered to be poor unlike small households (4.6 members). D ata from the study indicated most households had five members or more hence the respondents could be considered to be poor in this respect.
Poverty. According to the PSA, the per capita poverty threshold in 2015 for the Manila Bay area ranged from Php 10,958 in Laguna to Php 12,517 in NCR while the national poverty threshold stood at Php 10,969 monthly (Table 4). All of the provinces within the Manila Bay area registered poverty thresholds higher than the national average, except for Laguna, which is slightly lower than the national average. Cavite registered the highest threshold followed by NCR and Bataan.Table 4. Poverty Threshold, Philippines and Manila Bay Area: 2006-2015 (Source: PSA) Provinces Philippines10,9699,3858,4486,703NCR12,51710,0849,4567,718Rizal12,01410,2259,3007,356Cavite12,8359,8088,2006,576Laguna10,9589,8638,6316,758Batangas10,8749,89586046,823Quezon10,3308,9497,9456,293Bulacan11,0629,8789,0127,204Pampanga11,2339,6208,4206,850Tarlac11,328955786226910Nueva Ecija11,64410,6629,9257,908Bataan12,2089,3748,7076,874Nueva Viscaya11,1129,2838,3656,802 The national poverty incidence of 21.1 in 2015 was much higher than those in the Manila Bay area, with the exception of Nueva Ecija (Figure 11). The lowest incidence was registered in NCR 2nd and 4th districts (3.8).Poverty incidence in the Manila Bay area (Table 8) has generally increased from 2006 to 2015, except for Bulacan (6.8 in 2006 to 5.9% in 2015), Nueva Ecija (26.3 to 24.6%), and Bataan (9.4 to 7.8%).Figure 11: Poverty incidence for Philippines and Manila Bay Area: 2006-2015. (Data Source: PSA) 2006200920122015 Table 5. Poverty Incidence among Families, Philippines and Manila Bay Area: 2006, 2009, 2012, 2015 Philippines21.122.322.923.4NCR4.53.83.72.8NCR 1st District4.83.84.42.7NCR 2nd District3.83.13.22.8NCR 3rd District6.44.96.53.2NCR 4th District3.83.82.12.4Rizal7.47.69.55.5Cavite8.34.13.82.9Laguna5.96.37.45.8Batangas11.219.414.113.3Quezon22.322.622.827.4Bulacan5.96.77.56.8Pampanga5.26.45.93.3Tarlac21.11415.520.7Nueva Ecija24.623.027.026.3Bataan7.87.35.59.4Nueva Viscaya15.817.011.612.4Source: Philippine Statistics Authority
Poverty. Women’s lack of economic resources and education increase their vulnerability to violence (Heise et al., 1994). Poverty leads women into different unconducive activities like commercial sex workers which increase their vulnerability to sexual assault. In rural parts of Ethiopia, women are migrated to urban areas due to the prevalence of early marriage, poverty and for seeking better lives. In the town most of them become housemaids or prostitutes where they are more often raped as they make their jobs as prostitutes or street girls and even at the homes what they serve as maids (Miteke, 2000). Additionally, females who came from low income families are observed to be deceived by gifts, money and promise of marriage which is some of the ways that increases their exposure to being raped (Yohannes, 2003). Cross cultural studies from Denmark and Australia also confirm that unskilled, unemployed and poorly educated males aremore often rapists than other men (Allison, 1993). This is also observed in the following past five yearsoccupational and educational level of rapists in Addis Ababa.