Conclusions Sample Clauses

Conclusions. The purpose of this paper has been to show that problems of coordination failure in the formation of TAs may be resolved when countries are organized into regions. Costs of shipping goods between regions must be significant, but no so high as to eliminate trade between regions. With no transport costs, there is a problem of multiple equilibria due to coordination failure familiar from the theory of coalition formation. Positive transport costs are enough to bring about a unique equilibrium in the first period of the TA formation game. Starting from a situation where there are no TAs, in the first period two regional TAs form simultaneously. In the second period the two regional TAs merge to bring about free trade. The attainment of free trade only after a period of regionalism rests on a restriction in the flow of information through the TA formation process. Members can only communicate about their agreement once they have simultaneously and independently chosen their trade agreement partners. Best responses are made naively, based only on information about the TA structure of the previous period.Inevitably, the theoretical framework developed here simplifies the situation in a num- ber of key respects. The underlying economic structure of the model is one of Cournot competition in a homogeneous product. In practice, the forces of competition are more subtle and complex. Future research could take steps to see whether the insights of the present model extend to alternative settings. It seems reasonable to argue that the features of the model exhibited in the examples would extend to other forms of competition. It is widely appreciated that Bertrand competition behaves like Cournot competition when firmsmust pre-commit to quantities. A more elaborate modelling of perfect competition should also exhibit the same features, as suggested by Bond (2001). The key motivating feature of the model is that import substitution elasticities are declining in distance in the model, and this motivates higher rents in trade and hence higher tariffs between close neighbors in the absence of an agreement. This feature of the model should be robust to alternative assumptions about competition.It also seems reasonable to argue that the features of the model would extend to a more elaborate model of production. A direct way to do this would be to assume that X is horizontally differentiated, extending preferences and production accordingly. Alternatively, Syropoulos (1999) off...
Conclusions. In this work we illuminated some aspects of T T¯ deformed field theories and their holo- graphic avatars in terms AdS with a finite radial cutoff. On the field theory side, we showed how the deformation can be formulated via a dynamical change of coordinates and generalized this analysis to the situation when the undeformed theory lives on a curved space. We also provided a more direct means of deriving deformed Lagrangians using this machinery. The holographic side of our story refines and adds a number of elements to the cutoff AdS proposal. Firstly, the role of placing a radial cutoff was made manifest by showing that the action of the annular region between the cutoff and the old AdS boundary is given by the Toperator (integrated over either of these boundaries). Thedynamical change of coordinates were also shown to naturally arise in this holographic setup by analysing radial fluctuations of the cutoff surface. Finally, we also uncovered how the flow equation for the deformed stress tensor has an exact parallel in the bulk. This was achieved by studying the change of the holographic stress tensor due to variations of the cutoff surface and an extra coordinate transformation to keep the metric flat. On the whole, these precise gravitational manifestations of the field theory T T¯ flows sheds light on why the cutoff AdS setup works.There are many important points to be better understood, which constitute interest- ing future directions. The analysis performed here was entirely classical and we focusedJHEP03(2021)140mostly on on-shell physics. However, the real challenges in understanding T T¯ theoriesarise at the quantum level. Our hope is that the geometrical structures that appear at the classical level will survive in some form in the quantum theory, but to develop this we need to study observables in the quantum regime. Concretely, it remains to be seen how correlation functions can be reconstructed from the cutoff geometry, both order by order in the T T¯ deformation parameter λ expansion and non-perturbatively. It is reasonable to hope that the flow equation for the stress tensor correlators can be reproduced from the bulk. At leading order in λ, 2-point and 3-point correlations of the stress tensor have been computed in the cutoff gravity setup, and from conformal perturbation in the deformed CFT [11]. These were shown to match and can be understood from demanding stress tensor conservation and the trace relation Ti = πλ det Ti. It would be i...
Conclusions. This paper discussed the challenges facing engineering organizations today. There is need to produce designs more quickly, with better results, and of higher quality. To accomplish these goals, process improvements must occur at an organizational level beyond individual levels. The features of the described architecture each delivervalue in the engineering design process. Combined, they deliver on the areas identified as key to achieving the next level of process efficiency:• Knowledge retention: The use of Shared Project results in an accumulation of knowledge during a project. This accumulation is not an extra step that must be performed, but rather integral to the day-to-day process. At the end of a project, key information is automatically stored in a central repository where it can be accessed using only a Web browser.• Better utilization of computing resources: The use of massively concurrent data processing technology, aided by load balancing that evenly distributes jobs across available resources enables computing at a scale that has never been practical before. The use of a centralized Analysis Library combined with Web hosted design wizards makes the use of load balancing techniques transparent. The result is an efficient use of resources with minimal overhead required to configure and setup jobs, and more extensive exploration of the space of design alternatives within given time and budget limits.• Standardization of design methods: Using the Web as a means to distribute design methodologies provides an effective mechanism to deliver company approved and well-defined methods to many end users. The architecture described in this paper delivers on these needs. A Web portal based system was described that allows teams of engineers to coordinate and manage their efforts. The key components of this system are described. To illustrate how this architecture can benefit organizations, two examples have been described. The first example describes how to deploy the BLISS methodology. The second example describes how to deploy a DFSS process. Both examples are sophisticated methods that require effective mechanisms to realize a return on investment. Lastly, a proof of concept of the load balancing concept through Web service was demonstrated. It was shown that ModelCenter can submit a trade study to the Web service which distributes the runs to back-end load balancing tools. AcknowledgmentsThis work done by Phoenix Integration, Inc., was partially funded ...
Conclusions. It has been shown that both environmental sustainability as measured by ESI and the subjective quality of life as measured by Inequality Adjusted Life Satisfaction are positively correlated with indicators of ageing. However, the nature of the causal relation for this correlation is not clear yet. The most likely explanation must take into account the fact, that all these indices are strongly interrelated. The data show that mature societies are also more sustainable and happier. However, the correlation between sustainability and happiness is only positive for more sustainable countries, while it is negative for less sustainable ones. While better sustainability also improves happiness in countries, which are already reasonably sustainable, it is harder to motivate very unsustainable countries to change because this is also related to decrease in life satisfaction. A comparison of ageing measures to both sustainability and happiness, however, demonstrates that sustainability and happiness improve with ageing. It must be noted, though, that extreme ageing was not taken into account, because the average age in all the observed countries is still well below 65.While these correlations at first appear to be interesting only as an academic discourse, they also demonstrate that Europe, for example, has in its ageing population a significant advantage both in terms of happiness and in terms of sustainability. REFERENCESBrundtland, G. H. et al. (1987): Our Common Future, World Commission on Environment and Development, Oxford University Press, Oxford.Diener, E. and Seligman M. E. P. (2002): “Very Happy People”, Psychological Science, 13 (1), pp. 81-84, January.Esty, D.C., Levy, M., Srebotnjak, T. and de Sherbinin, A. (2005): 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index: Benchmarking National Environmental Stewardship, Yale Center for Environmental Law & Policy, New Haven, http://www.yale.edu/esi.Inglehart, R. and Klingemann, H. D. (2000): “Genes, Culture, Democracy and Happiness”, in Diener, E. and Suh, E.M. (Eds.), Culture and Subjective Well-Being Across Cultures, MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 165-182.Kirkcaldy, B., Furnham, A., Siefen, G. (2004): “The Relationship between Health Efficacy, Educational Attainment and Well-Being among 30 Nations”, European Psychologist 9 (2), pp. 107-119.Ott, J. (2000): “Freedom and the Achievement of Happiness”, 50th Annual Conference of the Political Studies Association UK, April 10-13, (2000), http://www.psa.ac.uk/cps/20...
Conclusions. This paper reports the results of a study which sought to answer two research questions: RQ1. What is the influence of individual differences (smell sensitivity, age, gender, education) on user mulsemedia QoE? RQ2. What is the influence of cross modally matched olfactory stimuli on user mulsemedia QoE? From the results obtained of the influence of individual differences (age, gender and education) on user mulsemedia QoE we can conclude overall, compare to the older generation, the 18–21 years old group enjoyed the multisensorial experience more than above 21 years old users. In terms of olfactory experience the younger group had positive feedback as oppose to the former group and were more positive towards the use of olfactory-enhanced viewing experiences. However, the older generation preferred experiences in which effects generated by the haptic vest were in place. In terms of the influence of gender, in line with previous studies in the literature, our result also conclude that females are more sensitive to smell compare with males. Females were also more satisfied with the haptic experience than males. Therefore, female users were more sensitive to the effects introduced by scents in mulsemedia and they appreciated haptic vests effects. Moreover, results showed they enjoyed cross-modal mulsemedia experiences more than males. Education of our participants also had effect on their mulsemedia QoE. With regard to the haptic vest effects, the result showed, participants with postgraduate education enjoyed watching the videos wearing the haptic vest more than the undergraduate group. Postgraduate group felt that the haptic effects were more relevant to the video clip they were watching, compared to the other group. Finally, our analysis of three-way interaction effect between age, gender and education showed the interaction of gender and education had a statistically significant effect on the average to the responses given for Q2. The result obtained showed that the average of gender is significantly different across the education and hence participants with postgraduate qualifi- cation had an influence on the average. In conclusion there were numerous correlations found between the questionnaires (smell sensitivity and QoE). It appears that most users had a satisfying overall experience and the cross modally matched odours as well as the haptic vest were perceived positively. This is emphasised in the CG where participants who relate to Q5SS, Q6SS, Q7SS and...
Conclusions. A wise young student in an arts program recently observed: in prose you try to tell everything that happened; in poetry you leave out things on purpose so that you can tell the truth.13 It has not been possible here—even in prose—to portray all that goes on in the learning that happens through participation in the arts 12 We reject the types of calculations based on young people as problems or likely criminals. Such projections,especially for youth “at-risk,” assume such young people “go bad.” Therefore it is necessary to look ahead to the total costs of youth services, court costs and related personnel expenditures (probation officers,social workers, etc),imprisonment costs, as well as teen pregnancy figures. Such a tactic leads to wild comparisons, generally in pursuit of convincing taxpayers they will “savemoney on “these kids” if they help support designated causes. It is not uncommon for media reports to claim that “problem teenagers” may well be on a path that could cost “the public” $36,000-$100,000 annually per youth. These ways of calculating fit into the current societal yearning to blame and to control young people, even when hard statistical facts will not support such claims as “increased youth violence”; for extensive examination of these points,see Males 1996, 1999. 13 This nugget of wisdom was passed on to Heath from Arnold April, Executive Director of the Chicago Arts Partnerships in Education. within youth organizations; neither is it possible to render in poetry the truth of its fullness. Community organizations that work effectively with youth successfully fill the “institutional gap” by providing young people with substantial learning and practice opportunities with adult professionals and older youth who serve as teachers and models. Such organizations create ample supplies, instruction, and structured exploration time for young people to know and to develop their talents as producers, spectators, and evaluators in one or more of the arts. This, in turn, enables young artists to develop the motivation,skills, and habits of mind necessary not only to contribute to solo and group projects while holding high standards of achievement for themselves and others, but also to sustain focus through sufficient practice to reach peak levels of proficiency and pride in being a member of a community-building organization. Effective youth arts organizations build strong pro- civic and pro-social values in young people, enhancing opportunities for...
Conclusions. We presented NeurAlign, a novel approach to com- bining the outputs of different word alignment sys- tems. Our approach treats individual alignment sys- tems as black boxes, and transforms the individual alignments into a set of data with features that are borrowed from their outputs and additional linguis- tic features (such as POS tags and dependency re- lations). We use neural nets to learn the true align- ments from these transformed data.We show that using POS tags to partition the transformed data, and learning a different classifier for each partition is more effective than using the en- tire data at once. Our results indicate that NeurAlign yields a significant 28-39% relative error reduction over the best of the input alignment systems and a significant 20-34% relative error reduction over the best known alignment combination technique on English-Spanish and English-Chinese data.We should note that NeurAlign is not a stand- alone word alignment system but a supervised learn- ing approach to improve already existing alignment systems. A drawback of our approach is that it re- quires annotated data. However, our experiments have shown that significant improvements can be obtained using a small set of annotated data. We will do additional experiments to observe the effects of varying the size of the annotated data while learn- ing neural nets. We are also planning to investigate whether NeurAlign helps when the individual align- ers are trained using more data.We will extend our combination approach to com- bine word alignment systems based on different models, and investigate the effectiveness of our tech- nique on other language pairs. We also intend to evaluate the effectiveness of our improved alignment approach in the context of machine translation and cross-language projection of resources. Acknowledgments This work has been supported in part by ONR MURI Contract FCPO.810548265, Coopera- tive Agreement DAAD190320020, and NSF ITR Grant IIS- 0326553.ReferencesSteven Abney, Robert E. Schapire, and Yoram Singer. 1999. Boosting applied to tagging and PP attachment. In Proceed- ings of EMNLP’1999, pages 38–45.Necip F. Ayan, Bonnie J. Dorr, and Nizar Habash. 2004. Multi- Align: Combining linguistic and statistical techniques to improve alignments for adaptable MT. In Proceedings of AMTA’2004, pages 17–26.Eric Brill and Jun Wu. 1998. Classifier combination for im- proved lexical disambiguation. In Proc. of ACL’1998.Colin Cherry and Dekang Lin. 2003. A ...
Conclusions. Integration between platforms has been taking place for a long time in the framework of a global project that is developed at LINTI. In a first instance, through LMS Moodle communication with academic management systems, social networks and digital repositories. In a second instance, progress was made in extending the functionality of the repository to allow communication with other tools that are widely used today, such as file management systems in the Cloud, DropBox and Google Drive and the social network Facebook. The built-in extensions aim to extend the repository's own space in order to integrate it into new generation platforms that change the habits of information use. The repository is based on a free software platform, which allows its customization and adaptation to the needs of the project at hand. However, the adoption of an open tool also implies the verification of its accessible characteristics. It is essential that the tools made available can be accessed by anyone, independently of their capabilities and resources. The evaluation of the accessibility aspects of the repository and the correction of existing errors began in accordance with Act 26,653 enacted in Argentina on compliance with the WCAG guidelines for the web content of State sites.The methodology used to verify the degree of accessibility of a website, in agreement with WCAG-EM, involved
Conclusions. The rates of N2O emission and TDN (N2O+N2) were generally greater in the surface soil than in the subsoils, irrespective of the supply of NO3- and two added C sources in the form of glucose and DOC treatments. Addition of C markedly increased soil denitrification rates, giving higher N2O/(N2O+N2) ratios in the surface soil than in the subsoils. This clearly indicates the potential of subsoils for more complete reduction of N2O to N2 while the energy sources for denitrifiers are available. Denitrification potentials were mainly regulated by substrates including total organic C, total N and total organic N. The findings suggest that both glucose-C and DOC were highly effective for the complete reduction of NO3- to occur in subsoil environments and subsoils could have a large potential to attenuate NO3- that has leached below the root zone, with the production of more N2 than N2O, if available C is not limiting.Acknowledgments Financial support for this study was provided through the Research Stimulus Fund Programme of the Irish Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food (Grant RSF 06 383). We would like to thank the Water Quality research group in Teagasc Environment Research Centre, Ireland and the Soil and Atmosphere research group in Roth Research, North Wyke, UK for providing laboratory facilities and helping out with field and analytical work. References Alexander, R., Smith, R., Schwarz, G., 2000. Effect of stream channel size on the delivery of nitrogen to the Gulf of Mexico. Nature 403, 758–61.Anderson, A.J., Peterson, S.O., 2009. Effects of C and N availability and soil-water potential interactions on N2O emission. Soil Biol. Biochem. 41, 1726-1733.Askew, F.E., Smith, R.K., 2005. Inorganic non metallic constituents; Method 4500-CL- E Automated Ferricyanide method. In; D.A. Eaton, L.S. Clesceri, E.W. Rice,A.E. Greensberg (Eds.), Standard Methods for the Examination of Waters and Waste Water. 21st Edn. pp. 4-74, ISBN 0-87553-047-8. ISBN 0-87553-047-8 American Public Health Association, 8001 street, NW Washington, DC 2001- 3710.Aulakh, M.S., Singh, K., Singh. B., Doran. J.W., 1996. Kinetics of nitrification under upland and flooded soils of varying texture. Commun Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 27, 2079-2089.Aulakh, M.S., Doran J.W., Mosier, A.R., 1992. Soil denitrification: significance, measurement and effects of management. Adv. Soil Sci. 18, 1-57.Bandibas, J., Vermoesen, A., DeGroot, C.J., Van Clemput, O., 1994. The effect of different moisture regimes a...
Conclusions. 1. The academic programs covering the subjects of extractive metallurgy are on a relentless trend of being eradicated from the teaching curricula at U.S. universities.2. The strict federal policies, the economic market forces, poor public perception, the history of treacherous business assimilation of mining corporations by oil conglomerates, and virtually nonexistent collaborative interface between the mining industry, the government, and academia all are the factors that contributed to a precipitous decline of mining industry in the U.S.3. In a chain reaction, weakening of the mining industry lead to poor job prospects, which in turn lead to dismal student enrolment in extractive metallurgy and mining schools. To the university administrators, and often the state legislators, enough evidence mounted to start closing these programs.4. It is not logical to give up on the science of mining/extractive metallurgy in the U.S. It is impossible for a country to be an economic and military super power without having a strong basic industry. History has no evidence of such a precedent. Second, regardless of the promises of nanotechnology, the reality is that the basic industry must always exist to support the new technology.5. Despite the decline of mining industry in the U.S., hydrometallurgy can evolve into another discipline, nanohydrometallurgy, and thus enhance its viability. The growth of nanotechnology should be viewed as an opportunity for growth of hydrometallurgy. References 1. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Copper, Technology and Competitiveness, September 1988, NTIS No. PB89-138887.2. EPA History-The Birth of EPA, http://www.epa.gov/history3. R&D Magazine, January 2002, p. F3.4. The National Science Foundation. http://www.nsf.gov. 5. JOM, June 2002, p. 8.6. University of Alberta News, NINT Set in Motion as World Class Center for Nanotechnology, (http://www.engineering.ualberta.ca).7. Materials Today, November/December 2001, p. 18.