Epidemiology Sample Clauses

Epidemiology. As awareness, knowledge, and screening have increased regarding ASD, so have estimates of ASD’s prevalence. The earliest epidemiologic studies of ASD took place in the 1960’s and 1970’s [26]; estimates of ASD prevalence from this research – 1 in 2500 children [26] – are shockingly low when compared to more recent estimates. Beginning in 2000, for example, researchers estimated that prevalence of ASD was approximately 6 per 1000 children.[3] Since that time, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has organized the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring Network (ADDM), which comprises a multi-site ASD surveillance program. In 2004, the ADDM estimated that the prevalence of ASD ranged from 1 in 94 to 1 in 303 children among 8-year-old children, with an overall prevalence of 6.6 per 1,000 children (or, 1 in 150 children).[4, 27] CDC recently published estimates of the prevalence of ASD to be 1 in 68 children in 2010, ranging from 1 in 45 in areas of New Jersey to 1 in 175 in areas of Alabama.[3, 28] Geographic differences likely represent variation in community identification of children with ASD. ASD prevalence also varies across gender and race. For example, males are consistently found to have higher rates of ASD than females: in the most recent AADM publication from CDC, boys were nearly five-times more likely than girls to receive a diagnosis of ASD.[3, 28] The same report describes differing prevalence between racial groups: based upon documentation from community-health providers, white children were nearly 30% more likely to be diagnosed with ASD than black children and almost 50% more likely to receive a diagnosis of ASD than Hispanic children.[3, 28] Etiology ASDs are highly heritable neurodevelopmental disorders.[4, 29] Although the exact causes of ASD remain elusive, the genetic underpinnings of autism have become clearer in recent years. In fact, nearly 20% of cases are associated with molecularly defined causes.[29] Despite the impressive genetic heterogeneity associated with ASD, genetic variants have been implicated only in association with other disorders and disabilities (i.e. never in association with ASD alone).[30] From a clinical perspective, ASD can be generally grouped into two categories: essential (idiopathic or non-syndromic) and secondary (also called syndromic, complex or ‘ASD Plus’).[4, 29, 30] Essential, or idiopathic, autism accounts the vast majority of cases — approximately 75% - 80% of cases [29, 30] —...
Epidemiology. Partner agrees to make data generated pursuant to clinical trials in the Field that are relevant to the epidemiology of any disease in the Field publicly available within [*****] of the generation of such data.
Epidemiology. Zinc is a trace element with atomic number 30, oxidation stage of +2, and standard atomic weight of 65g/mol. Although zinc is the 24th most abundant element in the earth’s crust (45), zinc deficiency is an important factor contributing to increased morbidity, mortality, and impaired development of children in unprivileged settings (46). Estimates suggest that 20% of the world’s population may be at risk of inadequate dietary intake of zinc, and 4.4% of childhood deaths are related to zinc deficiency (1, 2). Zinc deficiency was ranked as the 11th risk factor of mortality and the 12th risk factor of disease burden in the world in 2001 (15). The populations at the highest risk are concentrated in South and South East Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, Central America, and the Andean region. The most vulnerable groups are premature, small-for-age infants, and young children, particularly those 6- 23 months of age. Mechanisms of zinc deficiency. Zinc deficiency may generally occur due to one or more mechanisms, including inadequate zinc intake, interference of other dietary factors with the absorption and bioavailability of dietary zinc, increased loss of zinc, impaired utilization of zinc, and increased requirement for zinc during physiological conditions, such as pregnancy, lactation, and periods of rapid growth (47). Importance and functions of zinc Zinc functions. Zinc is an essential trace element critical to a large number of structural proteins, enzymatic processes, and transcription factors (48). In its structural role, zinc interacts with certain protein domains; facilitating protein folding and producing structures, such as ‘zinc fingers’. Thus, zinc is crucial for the production of biologically active molecules. In enzymatic processes, zinc is involved in the structure and stabilization of about 300 zinc metalloenzymes (49), such as oxidoreductases, transferases, hydrolases, lyases, isomerases, and ligases. As a component of transcription factors, zinc is essential for the regulation of gene regulation. For example, zinc regulates the expression of metallothionein, which has functions in intracellular zinc compartmentalization and antioxidant function. The binding of zinc to the metal response element transcription factor 1 (MTF1) activates the transcription of metallothionein and many other genes. Therefore, zinc is essential for many biological functions, including immunity, growth, neurological transmission, and reproduction (50).
Epidemiology. According to the latest estimates by the World Health Organization (WHO),
Epidemiology. For the year 2017, The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) estimates the overall global NTD burden to be 815.12 DALYs per 100,000 with a 95% CI of (635.52, 1045.1). High socio-demographic index (SDI) countries, however, have a burden of 21.01 DALYs per 100,000, 95% CI (14.01, 28.99). In comparison, Ethiopia’s overall NTD burden is slightly less than the global total: 728.08 DALYs per 100,000 with a 95% CI of (508.17, 1,007.16)(27). Of note, this estimate excludes newly added NTDs including chromoblastomycosis and snakebite envenoming, which WHO added to the list in 2017 (1). IHME estimates the schistosomiasis burden to be 18.74 DALYs per 100,000, 95% CI (11.47, 31.89). Ethiopia’s schistosomiasis burden is much higher than the average global burden at 173.31, 95% CI (96.91, 320.01), DALYs per 100,000. In contrast, high SDI countries experience a loss of 0.00062, 95% CI (0.00036, 0.00096) DALYs per 100,000 (27). Of note, these estimates include all types of schistosomiasis and are not limited to S. mansoni. WHO estimates that 206.4 million humans require preventative chemotherapy across 52 countries (13). In 2017, 210,671 new leprosy cases were diagnosed around the world. This is equivalent to 2.77 cases per 100,000 people. In Ethiopia, WHO was notified of 3114 new cases, which represents a decrease in number of diagnosed new cases. In 2013, 4374 new cases were diagnosed and in 2015 there were 3970 (28). IHME estimates a burden of 0.41 DALYs per 100,000 95% CI (0.28, 0.58) globally and 0.7, 95% CI (0.47, 0.99) DALYs per 100,000, in Ethiopia. IHME estimated high SDI countries to have 0.0085, 95% CI (0.0054, 0.013), DALYs per 100,000 (27). Leprosy Transmission The precise route of leprosy transmission remains unknown, but nasal secretions of infected individuals’ remains the most likely suspect of primary transmission. Person-to-person, through nasal secretions, and zoonotic transmission routes are well supported; however, recent studies suggest that direct inoculation, environmental, and insect related routes may be important transmission factors as well(29).Xxxxxxxx et al’s 2015 systematic review found that close contacts, particularly those living in the same household as a known leprosy case, is the single most important risk factor or acquisition of leprosy infection (29). However, other than lepromatous leprosy cases, the predominant amount of leprosy cases are non-infectious while mycobacterium is intracellular. Untreated lepromatous lepr...
Epidemiology. Tuberculosis was the fifth leading cause of mortality in the world in 2015 (WHO, 2016). It is estimated that in 2015, there were about 10.4 million incident cases of tuberculosis, of which
Epidemiology. Gonorrhea is the second most prevalent bacterial sexually transmitted infection, with an estimated 106 million cases occurring each year worldwide, and 600,000 cases in the United States alone (238, 267). In the U.S., rates of gonococcal infection are highest among 15 - 24 year old persons, individuals living in the southern and midwest portions of the United States, and the African American population (238). In addition, the incidence of gonorrhea is higher in women than in men, and this discrepancy may be larger than is evident due to the higher occurrence of asymptomatic infection in women (59, 238). Worldwide, the rate of gonococcal infection is highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, southeast Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean (267). Developing countries struggle with a high rate of complicated gonococcal infection due to inaccessibility of adequate healthcare and effective antibiotic treatments.

Related to Epidemiology

  • Study Resolution of issues surrounding Keno facility are an important part of achieving the overall goals of this Settlement. Accordingly, the Secretary, in consultation with affected Parties, shall study issues specific to the Keno facility, with specific focus on addressing water quality, fish passage, transfer of title to the Keno facility from PacifiCorp to Interior, future operations and maintenance, and landowner agreements. The study of the Keno facility will be designed with the goals of addressing these issues and maintaining the benefits the dam currently provides.

  • Medical Verification The County may require a physician's certification of the nature and duration of an employee's disability or absences from work for absences exceeding three (3) days, of an employee's ability to return to work, and/or of an employee's ability to continue the full performance of his or her duties.

  • Testing Landlord shall have the right to conduct annual tests of the Premises to determine whether any contamination of the Premises or the Project has occurred as a result of Tenant’s use. Tenant shall be required to pay the cost of such annual test of the Premises; provided, however, that if Tenant conducts its own tests of the Premises using third party contractors and test procedures acceptable to Landlord which tests are certified to Landlord, Landlord shall accept such tests in lieu of the annual tests to be paid for by Tenant. In addition, at any time, and from time to time, prior to the expiration or earlier termination of the Term, Landlord shall have the right to conduct appropriate tests of the Premises and the Project to determine if contamination has occurred as a result of Tenant’s use of the Premises. In connection with such testing, upon the request of Landlord, Tenant shall deliver to Landlord or its consultant such non-proprietary information concerning the use of Hazardous Materials in or about the Premises by Tenant or any Tenant Party. If contamination has occurred for which Tenant is liable under this Section 30, Tenant shall pay all costs to conduct such tests. If no such contamination is found, Landlord shall pay the costs of such tests (which shall not constitute an Operating Expense). Landlord shall provide Tenant with a copy of all third party, non-confidential reports and tests of the Premises made by or on behalf of Landlord during the Term without representation or warranty and subject to a confidentiality agreement. Tenant shall, at its sole cost and expense, promptly and satisfactorily remediate any environmental conditions identified by such testing in accordance with all Environmental Requirements. Landlord’s receipt of or satisfaction with any environmental assessment in no way waives any rights which Landlord may have against Tenant.

  • Screening All drug screening tests shall be conducted by medical laboratories certified by the Department of Health and Human Services or certified by a DHHS recognized certification program. No test shall be considered positive until it has been confirmed by a Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry full scan test or its equivalent. The procedures utilized by the City and testing laboratory shall include an evidentiary chain of custody control. All procedures shall be outlined in writing and this outline shall be followed in all situations arising under this Article. The split sample method of collection shall be used and shall follow prescribed testing procedures. Collection of samples for all random testing shall take place in the police department.

  • Engineering 2.1.3 Major Equipment procurement

  • Background Screening Project Consultant agrees to comply with all requirements of Sections 1012.32 and 1012.465, Florida Statutes, and that Project Consultant, its agents, subconsultants and all of its personnel who (1) are to be permitted access to school grounds when students are present, (2) will have direct contact with students, or (3) have access or control of school funds will successfully complete the background screening required by the referenced statutes and meet the standards established by the statutes. This background screening will be conducted by SBBC in advance of Project Consultant or its personnel providing any services under the conditions described in the previous sentence. Project Consultant will bear the cost of acquiring the background screening required by Section 1012.32, Florida Statutes, and any fee imposed by the Florida Department of Law Enforcement to maintain the fingerprints provided with respect to Project Consultant and its personnel. The Parties agree that the failure of Project Consultant to perform any of the duties described in this section shall constitute a material breach of this Agreement entitling SBBC to terminate immediately with no further responsibilities or duties to perform under this Agreement. Project Consultant agrees to indemnify and hold harmless SBBC, its officers and employees from any liability in the form of physical or mental injury, death or property damage resulting from Project Consultant’s failure to comply with the requirement of this Section or Section 1012.32 and Section 1012.465, Florida Statutes in addition to any other indemnification obligations that may be imposed upon Project Consultant pursuant to Article 8 of this Agreement and the laws of Florida.