Precipitation. 2.3.3 Leachate Generation Quantities
Precipitation. Precipitation was measured using a Climatronics 100097-1-G0 tipping bucket. The manufacturer- reported accuracy is ±1% up to 5.1 cm/hr and ±5% up to 25 cm/hr.
Precipitation. Phosphorus content within precipitation should be determined in bulk and wet fall (rain- containing phosphorus in dry and wet forms). Review of precipitation data collected in the fall from the October 1st through March 31st will be used to forecast volume and intensity of rainfall events throughout this monitoring period. One location for a unit to monitor wet and dry fall (use a rain gage) on a weekly- or twice- monthly basis should be adequate. The rainfall patterns measured during the proposed monitoring period will provide perspective on the amount of airborne phosphorus that might be expected to be loading into the Wet Pond and the receiving stream (Xxxxxx Creek).
Precipitation. Many agencies collect precipitation data in the region. The major rain gauge networks are shown on the figure below and discussed below.
Precipitation. The main forms of precipitation include rain, snow, ice pellets, and graupel.
Precipitation. In the landslide hazard model produced for 2010 in D2.10, a monthly global dataset for the precipitation was used to estimate the expected extreme monthly precipitation (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Offenbach, Germany). This dataset is now replaced with model results of the REMO model operated by the Xxx Xxxxxx Institute in Hamburg (Xxxxx 2001, Xxxxx et al. 2001). The model was first used in a control run to recalculate the current climate in the period 1981 to 2000. The same model was then applied to estimate the climate evolution in Europe until 2100. The model uses the A1B scenario defined by the IPCC (IPCC, 2007) and the boundary conditions for the regional model are defined by the global ECHAM5 model. Spatial resolution of the model is 25 × 25km. The model is described in detail in D3.1. The IPCC A1 scenarios are based on the assumptions of continuing and rapid economic growth, a global population that peaks in mid-century and rapid introduction of new and more efficient technologies. A1 is divided into three groups that describe alternative directions of technological change where (A1B) presents a balance between fossil intensive and non-fossil energy resources. To get an estimate of the extreme precipitation events, the 99.9% percentile of daily precipitation was calculated for 20 year periods from 1981-2100. This value represents the amount of daily precipitation that is exceeded every 50 years in the grid cell, and ranges from 26 mm to 1557 mm. The data are reclassified to be used in the landslide hazard model (Table 2-1) using a logarithmic classification scale. Figure 2-1 shows the development of the 99.9% percentile of precipitation in Europe for 20-year intervals from 2000 to 2100. 0.1% of all precipitation events in a 20-year period are higher than the pixel values in the maps. Table 2-1: Reclassification for 99.9% percentile of precipitation extremes in Europe Daily (24h) precipitation in millimeters Susceptibility Tp1 0 – 60 Low 1 61 – 75 Moderate 2 76 – 95 Medium 3 96 – 120 High 4 > 120 Very high 5 Figure 2-1: Absolute value of the 99.9% percentile of precipitation in Europe. 0.1% of all precipitation events in a 20 year period are higher than the pixel values in the maps. Each map represents a 20 year period (e.g. 2000-2020 is represented by 2010). Highest precipitation extremes are found in the Mediterranean, Iceland and Norway. The trend in the future is towards more extreme events in the south, whi...
Precipitation. The product of atmospheric water vapour condensation that falls to the Earth’s surface under gravity. The main types of precipitation are: drizzle, rain, sleet, snow and hail. Predrill Drilling activities taking place to accelerate early production once offshore facilities are in place. Preservation Chemicals Chemicals used to prevent corrosion and inhibit bacteria growth in seawater used for hydrotesting. Pressure Maintenance The process of keeping reservoir pressure at the optimum level during production, usually by water or gas injection to replace the extracted fluids.
Precipitation. The year 1 user questionnaire identified dekadal, unbiased, 5 km rainfall as a key requirement. We have pursued precipitation enhancement through two primary activities: i) production of global 0.05° climatological surfaces and ii) the acquisition and quality control of daily quasi-real time in situ precipitation observations. The objective of this work is to create orographically enhanced 0.05° dekadal standardized precipitation indices incorporating near real time gauge observations. Pursuant to the objective the following datasets and methods have been completed:
Precipitation. Lusaka District receives an appreciable volume of rainfall, however almost exclusively during the rainy season. On average there is a total of 70 rain days per season. However, the monthly average number of rain days range from 6 to 15 days. The months of December, January and February receive over 70% of the rainfall in any given year as shown in Figure 5-2. In addition, long dry periods are also experienced. In the rainy season from October to April, the monthly average rainfall is 114 mm, and the average annual rainfall over the past 30 years (period 1976/77 to 2005/06) was 802 mm (JICA 2009). Figure 5-2: Monthly average rainfall and rainfall days in Lusaka Source: JICA (2009): The Study on Comprehensive Urban Development Plan for the City of Lusaka 18.104.22.168 Temperature Mean monthly temperatures for Lusaka District range from 14°C in the cold season to about 28°C in the hot season when humidity is comparatively high. Minimum temperatures which are as low as 9°C have been recorded in the month of July. While the coldest month of the year with temperatures of 30°C and above are recorded in October. Figure 5-3 shows the average maximum and minimum monthly temperatures for Lusaka District recorded for the period of 1976/77 to 2005/06. Figure 5-3 indicates an average temperature throughout the year of 20.9°C. The average monthly maximum temperature reaches the highest of 35°C in October, and drops to a lowest of 10°C in July. Figure 5-3: Monthly temperatures in the City of Lusaka Source: Zambian Meteorological Department (2006)
Precipitation. Chromium precipitation is modeled using geochemical reaction equilibria in UTCHEM. Cr(III) precipitates in the form of chromium hydroxide complex. Cr3+ + H2O = Cr(OH)2+ + H+ (6.7) Cr3+ + 2 H2O = Cr(OH)+ + 2 H+ (6.8)