Decomposition. Phosphoric Acid is stable under normal handling, storage and shipping conditions. Reactions with some metals might result in the formation of flammable gas. Under extreme heat conditions, oxides of phosphorus could be generated. REACTIVITY Hazardous polymerization will not occur. Avoid contact with common metals. DISPOSAL State and local regulations should be followed regarding the disposal of Phosphoric Acid or the neutralization products resulting from any clean-up activities. REPORTING REQUIREMENTS Spill reporting requirements in the United States are set at 5000 lbs. or 380 gallons of 75% Phosphoric Acid.
Decomposition. Decomposition is a relation describing of what smaller parts a larger part consists and is here called “contains”, while the inverse is called “contained by”. Because of decomposition, the larger part can be considered a (decomposition) set of the smaller parts linked through decomposition and some additional unknown part as well. Similar to instantiation, a larger part can contain several smaller parts and a smaller part can also be part of several larger things. There can however be exceptions to this, depending on where the decomposition is applied. Also, the structure created through decomposition should form a directed acyclic graph, meaning that loops in decomposition are not allowed. Decomposition is generally described using the AND-inclusion type. However, variability can be achieved in some cases by also using different ones. For example, when describing products, the OR- and XOR-inclusion types can be used to denote the potential for customisability. In addition to the inclusion types the decomposition relation can also be marked as separable or inseparable. An inseparable decomposition indicates that the larger must contain the smaller, while with a separable relation the smaller part is considered optional. Having a separable contains relation to a smaller thing is the same as a contains relation to a decomposition set of XOR-inclusion type that itself contains the smaller thing and an empty set (see Figure 3).
Decomposition e The mathematical formulation (1)-(12) of MDPC contains three main sets of variables, respectively associated with the selection of contracts (binary variables αt ), the selection of facilities (binary variables vt ), and the allocation of demand to these facilities (continuous variables qt ). The optimal
Decomposition. The system is divided into sub-systems : • carbornecontroller and its variable/events, • Driver and its variable/events, • Train and its variable/events, • Wayside controller and its variable/events • Track and its variable/events • Time (universal time for all sub-systems) The wayside controller is then decomposed into several zone controller (each one dealing with a part of the CBTC territory). Each ZC (Zone Controller) can communicate with the trains that are on the ZC area. A ZC can communicate with the nearby ZC.
Decomposition. Formal, shared event decomposition is now used to separate the Controller model from its environment for further refinement towards implementation. The decomposed Controller model can also be converted into a Functional Mockup Unit (FMU) for simulation in a continuous representation of the landing gear environment. Chapter 4
Decomposition. A has component of a single chemical element statement is a specialisation of a has part statement. • A Decomposition structure description is a set of has part statements. A Quantity of a single chemical element is associated with a Chemical element. This is shown in Figure 17. domain 1 * range Nickel Carbon Iron Chemical element element of quantity Quantity of a single chemical element Physical object Atom Statement Class of physical object Physical object Figure 17 — Chemical element • An element of quantity statement is not a classification. This is because a member of a Chemical element, such as Iron, is a single atom, not many atoms. The magnitudes of the components can be expressed as mass, volume or amount of substance (molar) ratios. A ratio can be between a component and the whole, or between two components. The model for Mass, Volume and Amount of substance ratios is shown in Figure 18. domain * * range 1 1 numerator * value value value Amount of Substance ratio Volume ratio Mass ratio denominator * * numerator 1 1 denominator * * numerator denominator * Volume Mass Amount of substance Class of physical object type Physical object Statement Physical quantity Statement Figure 18 — Mass, volume and amount of substance ratio • The relationship between a Physical object and a Physical quantity such as a Mass, a Volume or an Amount of Substance is type, i.e. classification. This is not intuitive, but is an interpretation of the physical meaning.
Decomposition. All sodium hypochlorite decomposes, a fact that all bleach manufacturers battle with. Light, heat, organic matter and heavy metals such as iron, copper, nickel, and cobalt accelerate the rate of decomposition, contributing to the loss of sodium hypochlorite strength and the formation of oxygen. Loss of available chlorine through decomposition means using more product to achieve the same level of disinfection.
Decomposition. We have explored two avenues on decomposing Event-B models, here called A style and B style, respectively. The A style decomposition is based on the idea of partitioning the events into separate modules. The modules commu- nicate using a shared variable model. Hence, we have a state-based decom- position of models. The B style takes the view where an event is divided into different modules, giving rise to an event-based view. In Chapter 13 we give an overview of the methods and also present a more thorough compar- xxxx of the two approaches. Moreover, in Chapter 14 we discuss one special case of the A style decomposition, used in the SSF deployment study, where the possibility of decomposing an Event-B specification using modules and operation calls has been investigated.