Bilateral. Several countries have devoted significant bilateral aid budgets to tackle the issues of marine plastic litter and microplastics, including Australia, Germany, Japan, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States. In the inventory of financial resources bilateral financing was the most common type of financing, representing 44 per cent of the financial resources identified. Much bilateral aid focuses on countries in Asia and the Pacific, particularly on the five countries (China, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand and Viet Nam) from which it is Jambeck et al (2015) estimated that about half of all plastic waste that ends up in the ocean is released. Bilateral funding largely takes place through grant funding. Direct investment in private projects is not possible for some projects due to internal requirements. Nonetheless, some programmes have taken innovative approaches to support private initiatives and leverage private funding.
Bilateral. It will be more usual for the developer and the LPA to enter into early negotiations on an agreement which will be finalised before planning permission has been granted. Such agreements will be an obligation on both parties to implement and are therefore referred to as bilateral agreements.
Bilateral. Collaborative Research Programmes involving one RPO and one industry party, each partner should appoint a single point of contact for the Programme to ensure day-to-day adherence to the direction and scope of the Programme, as set out in the funding contract, and simple communication between the partners. Clear lines ofcommunication to the accountable individuals in both RPO and industry parties should be established to ensure any unforeseen issues are dealt with.