## Examples of *QSE* in a sentence

While, in the thickness regime where the **QSE** is comparable with the classical step eﬀect, the system is frustrated to satisfy both the electron energy and step energy at the same time.The kinetics barrier can be overcome by the STM manipulation and massive atom transport is then initiated in a controllable manner, transforming the wedge morphol- ogy and swinging it back and forth between the two extreme states [Figs.

Therefore, the even layered regions are more stable than the odd layered ones in terms of the **QSE**.

The electronic oscillation with thickness on Pb wedge was also investigated through STS measurement previously.4,5) In the thickness regime where the **QSE** dominates over the classical step eﬀect that induces the ﬂat-top morphology, one more atomic layer are anticipated to be added to the odd layered regions to decrease the quantized electrons’ energy and thus the total energy.

Assuming the prefactor of attempt frequency for surface diﬀusion is the same, we derive the diﬀerence of surface diﬀusion energy barrier on the two surfaces to be in the range of 28 meV, using the deposition temperature of 150 K.The above experiments provide not only a direct proof of **QSE** on surface diﬀusion but also a quantitative measure of diﬀusion barrier diﬀerence induced by **QSE**.

International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (**QSE**), 25(2), 189-203.