Because of means that the retaliation was a motivating factor in causing harm. Retaliation need not be the sole motivating factor.
Because of means “by reason of; on account of.” Webster’s New World Dictionary of the Am. Language 131 (C. ed. 1960); see Gross v. FBL Fin. Servs., Inc., 557 U.S. 167, 176 (2009) (same definition in other con- temporaneous dictionaries). As this Court has long recognized, an action is “because of” sex where it would not have occurred “but for that person’s sex.” Man- hart, 435 U.S. at 711 (internal citation and quotation marks omitted); see Gross, 557 U.S. at 176; Univ. of Tex. Sw. Med. Ctr. v. Nassar, 570 U.S. 338, 350-52 (2013).3 Thus, where an employer takes an adverse