Amended And Restated

AMENDED AND RESTATED BY - LAWS OF HUDSON GLOBAL, INC. (A Delaware Corporation) as Amended Through May 29, 2014

 

Exhibit 3.4

 

AMENDED AND RESTATED

 

BY - LAWS

 

OF

 

HUDSON GLOBAL, INC.

(a Delaware corporation)

 

As amended through May 29, 2014

ARTICLE I

Offices

 

Section 1.          The registered office shall be in the City of Wilmington, County of New Castle, State of Delaware.

 

Section 2.          The Corporation may also have offices at such other places both within and without the State of Delaware as the board of directors may from time to time determine or the business of the Corporation may require.

 

ARTICLE II
MEETINGS OF STOCKHOLDERS

 

Section 1.          All meetings of the stockholders for the election of directors shall be held in such place, either within or without the State of Delaware, at such place as may be fixed from time to time by the board of directors and as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors and stated in the notice of the meeting. Meetings of stockholders for any other purpose may be held at such time and place, within or without the State of Delaware, as shall be stated in the notice of the meeting.

 

Section 2.          Annual meetings of stockholders shall be held at such date and time as shall be designated from time to time by the board of directors and stated in the notice of the meeting, at which they shall elect by a plurality vote a board of directors, and transact such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting.

 

Section 3.          Notice of the annual meeting stating the place, date and hour of the meeting shall be given to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting not less than ten nor more than sixty days before the date of the meeting.

 

Section 4.          Nominations of persons for election to the board of directors and the proposal of business to be transacted by the stockholders may be made at an annual meeting of stockholders (a) pursuant to the Corporation's notice with respect to such meeting, (b) by or at the direction of the board of directors or (c) by any stockholder of record of the Corporation who was a stockholder of record at the time of the giving of the notice provided for in the following paragraph, who is entitled to vote at the meeting and who has complied with the notice procedures set forth in this section.

 

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For nominations or other business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder pursuant to clause (c) of the foregoing paragraph, the stockholder must have given timely notice thereof in writing to the secretary of the Corporation and such business must be a proper matter for stockholder action under the Delaware General Corporation Law. To be timely, a stockholder's notice shall be delivered to the secretary not less than 45 or more than 75 days prior to the first anniversary of the date on which the Corporation first mailed its proxy materials for the preceding year's annual meeting of stockholders; provided, however, that if the date of the annual meeting is advanced more than 30 days prior to or delayed by more than 30 days after the anniversary of the preceding year's annual meeting, notice by the stockholder to be timely must be so delivered not later than the close of business on the later of (i) the 90th day prior to such annual meeting or (ii) the 10th day following the day on which public announcement of the date of such meeting is first made. Such stockholder's notice shall set forth (a) as to each person whom the stockholder proposes to nominate for election or reelection as a director all information relating to such person as would be required to be disclosed in solicitations of proxies for the election of such nominees as directors pursuant to Regulation 14A under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and such person's written consent to serve as a director if elected; (b) as to any other business that the stockholder proposes to bring before the meeting, a brief description of such business, the reasons for conducting such business at the meeting and any material interest in such business of such stockholder and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made; (c) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination or proposal is made (i) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the Corporation's books, and of such beneficial owner, (ii) the class and number of shares of the Corporation that are owned beneficially and of record by such stockholder and such beneficial owner and (iii) a representation that such stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to bring such business before the meeting.

 

In the event that the number of directors to be elected to the board of directors is increased and there is no public announcement naming all of the nominees for director or specifying the size of the increased board of directors made by the Corporation at least 55 days prior to the first anniversary of the date on which the Corporation first mailed its proxy materials for the preceding year's annual meeting of stockholders, a stockholder's notice required by this section shall also be considered timely, but only with respect to nominees for any new positions created by such increase, if it shall be delivered to the secretary of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the 10th day following the day on which such public announcement is first made by the Corporation.

 

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Only persons nominated in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section shall be eligible to serve as directors and only such business shall be conducted at an annual meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section. The chairman of the meeting shall have the power and the duty to determine whether a nomination or any business proposed to be brought before the meeting has been made in accordance with the procedures set forth in this section and in Section 8 of this Article and, if any proposed nomination or business is not in compliance with such procedures, to declare that such defectively proposed business or nomination shall not be presented for stockholder action at the meeting and shall be disregarded.

 

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section or of Section 8 of this Article, a stockholder shall also comply with all applicable requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 and the rules and regulations thereunder with respect to matters set forth herein. Nothing in such provisions shall be deemed to affect any rights of stockholders to request inclusion of proposals in the Corporation's proxy statement pursuant to Rule 14a-8 under such Act.

 

Section 5.          The officer who has charge of the stock ledger of the Corporation shall prepare and make, at least ten days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, during ordinary business hours, for a period of at least ten days prior to the meeting, at the principal place of business of the Corporation.

 

Section 6.          Special meetings of the stockholders, for any purpose or purposes, unless otherwise prescribed by statute or by the certificate of incorporation, may be called by the chief executive officer or the chairman of the board and shall be called by the chief executive officer, the chairman of the board or the secretary at the request in writing of a majority of the entire board of directors. Such request shall state the purpose or purposes of the proposed meeting.

 

Section 7.          Notice of a special meeting stating the place, date and hour of the meeting and the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called, shall be given not less than ten nor more than sixty days before the date of the meeting, to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting.

 

Section 8.          Only such business shall be conducted at a special meeting of stockholders as shall have been brought before the meeting pursuant to the Corporation's notice of meeting. Nominations of persons for election to the board of directors may be made at a special meeting of stockholders at which directors are to be elected pursuant to the Corporation's notice of meeting (a) by or at the direction of the board of directors or (b) by any stockholder of record of the Corporation who is a stockholder of record at the time of giving of notice provided for in this paragraph, who shall be entitled to vote at the meeting and who complies with the notice procedures set forth in Section 4 of this Article. Nominations by stockholders of persons for election to the board of directors may be made at such a special meeting of stockholders if the stockholder's notice required by the second paragraph of Section 4 of this Article shall be delivered to the secretary of the Corporation not later than the close of business on the later of the 90th day prior to such special meeting or the 10th day following the day on which public announcement is first made of the date of the special meeting and of the nominees proposed by the board of directors to be elected at such meeting.

 

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Section 9.          The chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall determine the order of business and the procedure at the meeting, including such regulation of the manner of voting and the conduct of discussion as seem to the chairman in order. The chairman shall have the power to adjourn the meeting to another place, if any, date and time. The date and time of the opening and closing of the polls for each matter upon which the stockholders will vote at the meeting shall be announced at the meeting.

 

Section 10.         The holders of a majority of the stock issued and outstanding and entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum at all meetings of the stockholders for the transaction of business except as otherwise provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If, however, such quorum shall not be present or represented at any meeting of the stockholders, the stockholders entitled to vote thereat, present in person or represented by proxy, shall have power to adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present or represented. At such adjourned meeting at which a quorum shall be present or represented any business may be transacted which might have been transacted at the meeting as originally notified. If the adjournment is for more than thirty days, or if after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting, a notice of the adjourned meeting shall be given to each stockholder of record entitled to vote at the meeting.

 

Section 11.         When a quorum is present at any meeting, and except as provided in Section 2 of Article II of these by-laws, the vote of the holders of a majority of the stock having voting power present in person or represented by proxy shall decide any question brought before such meeting, unless the question is one upon which by express provision of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation, a different vote is required, in which case such express provision shall govern and control the decision of such question.

 

Section 12.         Unless otherwise provided in the certificate of incorporation, each stockholder shall at every meeting of the stockholders be entitled to one vote in person or by proxy for each share of the capital stock having voting power held by such stockholder, but no proxy shall be voted on or after three years from its date, unless the proxy provides for a longer period.

 

Section 13.         Any action required or permitted to be taken by the stockholders of the Corporation must be effected at a duly called annual or special meeting of stockholders of the Corporation

 

Section 14.         At all meetings of stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall have absolute authority over matters of procedure, and there shall be no appeal from the ruling of the chairman.

 

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Section 15.         If the object of a stockholders meeting is to elect directors or to take a vote of the stockholders on any proposition, then the chairman of the meeting shall appoint a person, who is not a director, as inspector to receive and canvass the votes given at such meeting and certify the result to the chairman.

 

Section 16.         Attendance of a stockholder, in person or by proxy, at any meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except where the stockholder, in person or by proxy, attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

 

ARTICLE III
DIRECTORS

 

Section 1.          The number of directors constituting the entire board of directors shall be fixed, and may be increased or decreased from time to time, exclusively by resolutions of the board of directors, and such number shall never be more than eleven nor less than five.

 

The board of directors shall be elected as provided in the certificate of incorporation. The term "entire board of directors" means the total number of directors which the Corporation would have if there were no vacancies.

 

A director shall hold office until the annual meeting of stockholders for the year in which his or her term expires and until his or her successor shall be elected and shall qualify, subject, however, to prior death, resignation, retirement, disqualification or removal from office. Notwithstanding the foregoing, a director who is also an employee of the Corporation shall cease to be a director on the date such employee’s employment by the Corporation is terminated for any reason without further action by the Corporation.

 

Section 2.          Subject to the rights of the holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancy on the board of directors that results from an increase in the number of directors may be filled by a majority of the board of directors then in office, provided that a quorum is present, and any other vacancy occurring on the board of directors may be filled by a majority of the board of directors then in office, even if less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director. Any director of any class elected to fill a vacancy resulting from an increase in the number of directors of such class shall hold office for a term that shall coincide with the remaining term of that class. Any director elected to fill a vacancy not resulting from an increase in the number of directors shall have the same remaining term as that of his or her predecessor.

 

Section 3.          The property and business of the Corporation shall be managed by or under the director of its board of directors which may exercise all such powers of the Corporation and do all such lawful acts and things as are not by statute or by the certificate of incorporation or by these by-laws directed or required to be exercised or done by the stockholders.

 

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Section 4.          Directors must be nominated in accordance with the procedure set forth in Section 4 of Article II hereof. No person shall be qualified to be elected and to hold office as a director if such person is determined by the affirmative vote of a majority of the entire board of directors to have violated either Federal or state law, in a manner contrary to the best interests of the Corporation, to have interests not properly authorized in conflict with the interests of the Corporation, or to have breached any agreement between such director and the Corporation relating to such director’s services as a director or employee of the Corporation.

 

Section 5.          The board of directors shall annually choose, from among them, a chairman of the board, who shall serve as such until a successor is elected. The chairman of the board shall preside at all meetings of the board of directors or of the stockholders of the Corporation. The chairman shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as are provided in these by-laws and, in addition thereto, as the board of directors may from time to time determine.

 

MEETINGS OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS

 

Section 6.          The board of directors of the Corporation, or any committee thereof, may hold meetings, both regular and special, either within or without the State of Delaware.

 

Section 7.          Regular meetings of the board of directors may be held upon such notice, or without notice at such time and at such place as shall from time to time be determined by the board.

 

Section 8.          Special meetings of the full board may be called by the chief executive officer, the chairman of the board or any director by mailing seven days’ written notice to each director or by telephone or by telegraph, telex, facsimile or electronic transmission not less than 24 hours before the meeting.

 

Section 9.          Notice of a meeting need not be given to any director who attends the meeting without protesting, prior thereto or at its commencement, the lack of notice. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any regular or special meeting of the board of directors need be specified in the notice or a waiver of notice of such meeting.

 

Section 10.         At all meetings of the board a majority of the directors shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business and the act of a majority of the directors present at any meeting at which there is a quorum shall be the act of the board of directors, except as may be otherwise specifically provided by statute or by the certificate of incorporation. If a quorum shall not be present at any meeting of the board of directors the directors present thereat may adjourn the meeting from time to time, without notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

 

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Section 11.         Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the board of directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting if all members of the board or committee, as the case may be, consent thereto in writing or by electronic transmission, and the writing or writings or electronic transmission or transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the board or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if minutes are maintained in electronic form.

 

Section 12.         Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, members of the board of directors, or any committee designated by the board of directors, may participate in a meeting of the board of directors, or any committee, by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and such participation in a meeting shall constitute presence in person at the meeting.

 

COMMITTEES

 

Section 13.         There shall be the following committees of the board of directors which shall have and may exercise the authority specified in these bylaws: a Compensation Committee, an Audit Committee, a Nominating and Governance Committee, a Human Resources Committee and an Executive Committee, each of which shall (i) consist of the number of directors with the requisite qualifications and (ii) have the responsibilities as set forth in their respective charters, which shall be approved by the board of directors. The board of directors may also, by resolution passed by a majority of the whole board, designate one or more other committees, each committee to consist of one or more directors of the Corporation. The Executive Committee shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the board of directors in the management of the business, properties and affairs of the Corporation, including authority to take all action provided by law and in the by-laws to be taken by the board of directors, except as such powers are limited by Section 13 of this Article III. All acts done and powers conferred by the Executive Committee shall be deemed to be, and may be certified as being, done or conferred under authority of the board of directors. The board may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members thereof present at any meeting and not disqualified from voting, whether or not he, she or they constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the board of directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the board of directors, or by these by-laws, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the board of directors in the management of the business and affairs of the Corporation, but no such committee shall have the power or authority in reference to the following matters: (i) approving or adopting, or recommending to the stockholders, any action or matter expressly required by the Delaware General Corporation Law to be submitted to stockholders for approval or (ii) adopting, amending or repealing any by-law of the Corporation; and, unless the resolution or the certificate of incorporation expressly so provide, no such committee shall have the power or authority to declare a dividend or to authorize the issuance of stock. Such committee or committees shall have such name or names as may be determined from time to time by resolution adopted by the board of directors.

 

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Section 14.         Each committee shall keep regular minutes of its meetings and report the same to the board of directors when required.

 

COMPENSATION OF DIRECTORS

 

Section 15.         Unless otherwise restricted by the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws, the Compensation Committee of the board of directors shall have the authority to fix the compensation of directors. The directors may also be paid their expenses, if any, of attendance at each meeting of the board of directors and may be paid a fixed sum for attendance at each meeting of the board of directors and/or a stated salary as director. The directors may also be granted stock options or other equity awards at the discretion of the Compensation Committee of the board of directors. No such payment or compensation shall preclude any director from serving the Corporation in any other capacity and receiving compensation therefor. Members of special or standing committees may be allowed like compensation for attending committee meetings.

 

REMOVAL OF DIRECTORS

 

Section 16.         Subject to the rights, if any, of the holders of shares of Preferred Stock then outstanding, any or all of the directors of the Corporation may be removed from office only in accordance with the certificate of incorporation.

 

ARTICLE IV
NOTICES

 

Section 1.          Whenever, under the provisions of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation or of these by-laws, notice is required to be given to any director or stockholder, it shall not be construed to mean personal notice, but such notice may be given in writing, by mail, addressed to such director or stockholder, at such person’s address as it appears on the records of the Corporation, with postage thereon prepaid, and such notice shall be deemed to be given at the time when the same shall be deposited in the United States mail. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given to stockholders, any notice to stockholders may also be given by electronic transmission in the manner provided in the Delaware General Corporation Law. Notice to directors may also be given by courier, telephone, telegram, telex, facsimile or electronic transmission or personally.

 

Section 2.          Whenever any notice is required to be given under the provisions of the statutes or of the certificate of incorporation or of these by-laws, a waiver thereof in writing, signed by the person or persons entitled to said notice, or waiver by electronic transmission by such person or persons, whether before or after the time stated therein, shall be deemed equivalent thereto. A person entitled to notice of any meeting of the board of directors or stockholders, as the case may be, waives such notice if he or she appears in person or, in the case of a stockholder, by proxy at such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purposes of objecting, at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

 

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ARTICLE V

OFFICERS

 

Section 1.          The officers of the Corporation shall be chosen by the board of directors and shall be a chief executive officer, a secretary and a treasurer. The board of directors may also choose one or more vice presidents, one or more assistant secretaries and assistant treasurers and other officers, as it shall deem necessary. Any such officers shall hold their offices for such terms and shall exercise such powers and perform such duties as shall be determined from time to time by the board. Any number of offices may be held by the same person, unless the certificate of incorporation or these by-laws otherwise provide.

 

Section 2.          The board of directors at its first meeting after each annual meeting of stockholders shall choose a chief executive officer, a secretary and a treasurer.

 

Section 3.          The salaries of all officers and agents of the Corporation shall be fixed by the board of directors.

 

Section 4.          The officers of the Corporation shall hold office until their successors are chosen and qualify or until their earlier resignation or removal. Any officer elected or appointed by the board of directors may be removed at any time with or without cause by the affirmative vote of a majority of the board of directors. Any vacancy occurring in any office of the Corporation shall be filled by the board of directors.

 

THE CHIEF EXECUTIVE OFFICER

 

Section 5.          The chief executive officer shall have general direction and supervision over day-to-day matters relating to the business and affairs of the Corporation, shall implement or supervise the implementation of corporate policies as established by the board of directors and shall be in charge of stockholder relations. He or she shall have such other powers and perform such other duties as the board of directors may from time to time prescribe.

 

Section 6.          He or she shall have the authority to execute bonds, mortgages and other contracts and, except as otherwise provided by law or the board of directors, he or she may authorize any vice president or other officer or agent of the Corporation to execute such documents in his or her place and stead.

 

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THE VICE PRESIDENTS

 

Section 7.          The vice president, if any, or, if there shall be more than one, the vice presidents in the order determined by the board of directors (or, in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election) shall, in the absence or disability of the chief executive officer, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the chief executive officer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors may from time to time prescribe.

 

THE SECRETARY AND ASSISTANT SECRETARY

 

Section 8.          The secretary shall attend all meetings of the board of directors and all meetings of the stockholders and record all the proceedings of the meetings of the Corporation and of the board of directors in a book to be kept for that purpose and shall perform like duties for the standing committees when required. He or she shall give, or cause to be given, notice of all meetings of the stockholders and special meetings of the board of directors, and shall perform such other duties as may be prescribed by the board of directors or the chief executive officer, under whose supervision he or she shall be.

 

Section 9.          The assistant secretary or, if there be more than one, the assistant secretaries in the order determined by the board of directors (or, in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election), shall, in the absence or disability of the secretary, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the secretary and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors may from time to time prescribe.

 

THE TREASURER AND ASSISTANT TREASURERS

 

Section 10.         The treasurer shall have the custody of the corporate funds and securities and shall keep full and accurate accounts of receipts and disbursements in books belonging to the Corporation and shall deposit all moneys and other valuable effects in the name and to the credit of the Corporation in such depositories as may be designated by the board of directors.

 

Section 11.         He or she shall disburse the funds of the Corporation as may be ordered by the board of directors, taking proper vouchers for such disbursements, and shall render to the chief executive officer and to the board of directors at its regular meetings, or when the board of directors so requires, an account of all his or her transactions as treasurer and of the financial condition of the Corporation.

 

Section 12.         If required by the board of directors, he or she shall give the Corporation a bond in such sum and with such surety or sureties as shall be satisfactory to the board of directors for the faithful performance of the duties of his office and for the restoration to the Corporation, in case of his death, resignation, retirement or removal from office, of all books, papers, vouchers, money and other property of whatever kind in his possession or under his or her control belonging to the Corporation.

 

Section 13.         The assistant treasurer, or, if there shall be more than one, the assistant treasurers in the order determined by the board of directors (or, in the absence of any designation, then in the order of their election), shall, in the absence or disability of the treasurer, perform the duties and exercise the powers of the treasurer and shall perform such other duties and have such other powers as the board of directors may from time to time prescribe.

 

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ARTICLE VI
CERTIFICATES OF STOCK

 

Section 1.          Every holder of stock in the Corporation shall be entitled to have a certificate, signed by, or in the name of the Corporation by the chief executive officer, or a vice-president and the treasurer or an assistant treasurer, or the secretary or an assistant secretary of the Corporation, certifying the number of shares owned by that holder in the Corporation.

 

Section 2.          Any of or all the signatures on the certificate may be facsimile. In case any officer, transfer agent or registrar who has signed or whose facsimile signature has been placed upon a certificate shall have ceased to be such officer, transfer agent or registrar before such certificate is issued, it may be issued by the Corporation with the same effect as if that person or entity were such officer, transfer agent or registrar at the date of issue.

 

LOST CERTIFICATES

 

Section 3.          The board of directors may direct a new certificate or certificates to be issued in place of any certificate or certificates theretofore issued by the Corporation alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon the making of an affidavit of that fact by the person claiming the certificate of stock to be lost, stolen or destroyed. When authorizing such issue of a new certificate or certificates, the board of directors may, in its discretion and as a condition precedent to the issuance thereof, require the owner of such lost, stolen or destroyed certificate or certificates, or the owner’s legal representative, to advertise the same in such manner as it shall require and/or to give the Corporation a bond or payment of applicable insurance premium in such sum as it may direct as indemnity against any claim that may be made against the Corporation with respect to the certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed.

 

TRANSFERS OF STOCK

 

Section 4.          Upon surrender to the Corporation or the transfer agent of the Corporation of a certificate for shares duly endorsed or accompanied by proper evidence of succession, assignation or authority to transfer, it shall be the duty of the Corporation to issue a new certificate to the person entitled thereto, cancel the old certificate and record the transaction upon its books.

 

FIXING RECORD DATE

 

Section 5.          In order that the Corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of or to vote at any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, or entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights, or entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the board of directors may fix, in advance, a record date, which shall not be more than sixty nor less than ten days before the date of such meeting, nor more than sixty days prior to any other action. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the board of directors may fix a new record date for the adjourned meeting.

 

 

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REGISTERED STOCKHOLDERS

 

Section 6.          The Corporation shall be entitled to recognize the exclusive right of a person registered on its books as the owner of shares to receive dividends, and to vote as such owner, and to hold liable for calls and assessments a person registered on its books as the owner of shares, and shall not be bound to recognize any equitable or other claim to or interest in such share or shares on the part of any other person, whether or not it shall have express or other notice thereof, except as otherwise provided by the laws of Delaware.

 

ARTICLE VII
INDEMNIFICATION

 

Section 1.          The Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the Corporation) by reason of the fact that the person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, against expenses (including attorneys’ fees), judgments, fines, and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with such action, suit or proceeding if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction, or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that the person did not act in good faith and in a manner which he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was unlawful.

 

Section 2.          The Corporation shall indemnify any person who was or is a party or is threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the Corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that such person is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection with the defense or settlement of such action or suit if such person acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation and except that no indemnification shall be made in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which such person shall have been adjudged to be liable to the Corporation unless and only to the extent that the Court of Chancery or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, such person is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses which the Court of Chancery or such other court shall deem proper.

 

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Section 3.          To the extent that a present or former director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in Sections 1 or 2 of this Article VII or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith.

 

Section 4.          Any indemnification under Sections 1 or 2 of this Article VII (unless ordered by a court) shall be made by the Corporation only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination that indemnification of the present or former director, officer, employee or agent is proper in the circumstances because the person has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Sections 1 or 2 of this Article VII. Such determination shall be made, with respect to a person which is a director or officer at the time of such determination, (a) by a majority vote of the directors who were not parties to such action, suit or proceeding, even though less than a quorum, or (b) by a committee of such directors designated by majority vote of such directors, even though less than a quorum, or (c) if there are no such directors, or if such directors so direct, by independent legal counsel in a written opinion, or (d) by the stockholders. To the extent, however, that a director or officer of the Corporation has been successful on the merits or otherwise in defense of any action, suit or proceeding described above, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, such person shall be indemnified against expenses (including attorneys' fees) actually and reasonably incurred by such person in connection therewith, without the necessity of authorization in the specific case.

 

Section 5.          For purposes of any determination under Section 4 of this Article VII, a person shall be deemed to have acted in good faith and in a manner such person reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation, or, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, to have had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, if such person's action is based on the records or books of account of the Corporation or another enterprise, or on information supplied to such person by the officers of the Corporation or another enterprise in the course of their duties, or on the advice of legal counsel for the Corporation or another enterprise or on information or records given or reports made to the Corporation or another enterprise by an independent certified public accountant or by an appraiser or other expert selected with reasonable care by the Corporation or another enterprise. The term "another enterprise" as used in this Section 5 shall mean any other corporation or any partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise of which such person is or was serving at the request of the Corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent. The provisions of this Section 5 shall not be deemed to be exclusive or to limit in any way the circumstances in which a person may be deemed to have met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 1 or 2 of this Article VII, as the case may be.

 

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Section 6.          Notwithstanding any contrary determination in the specific case under Section 4 of this Article VII, and notwithstanding the absence of any determination thereunder, any director or officer may apply to the Court of Chancery of the State of Delaware or any other court of competent jurisdiction in the State of Delaware for indemnification to the extent otherwise permissible under Sections 1 and 2 of this Article VII. The basis of such indemnification by a court shall be a determination by such court that indemnification of the director or officer is proper in the circumstances because such person has met the applicable standards of conduct set forth in Section 1 or 2 of this Article VII, as the case may be. Neither a contrary determination in the specific case under Section 4 of this Article VII nor the absence of any determination thereunder shall be a defense to such application or create a presumption that the director or officer seeking indemnification has not met any applicable standard of conduct. Notice of any application for indemnification pursuant to this Section 6 shall be given to the Corporation promptly upon the filing of such application. If successful, in whole or in part, the director or officer seeking indemnification shall also be entitled to be paid the expense of prosecuting such application.

 

Section 7.          Expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by a director or officer of the Corporation in defending any civil, criminal, administrative or investigative action, suit or proceeding may be paid by the Corporation in advance of the final disposition of such action, suit or proceeding upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of the director or officer to repay such amount if it shall ultimately be determined that such person is not entitled to be indemnified by the Corporation as authorized in this Article VII. Such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by former directors and officers or other employees and agents may be so paid upon such terms and conditions, if any, as the Corporation deems appropriate.

 

Section 8.          The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to, this Article VII shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which those seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under the certificate of incorporation or any bylaw, agreement, vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or pursuant to the direction of any court of competent jurisdiction or otherwise, both as to action in such person’s official capacity and as to action in another capacity while holding such office, it being the policy of the Corporation that indemnification of the persons specified in Section 1 and 2 of this Article VII shall be made to the fullest extent permitted by law. The provisions of this Article VII shall not be deemed to preclude the indemnification of any person who is not specified in Section 1 or 2 of this Article VII but whom the Corporation has the power or obligation to indemnify under the provisions of the GCL, or otherwise.

 

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Section 9.          The Corporation shall have power to purchase and maintain insurance on behalf of any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation, or is or was serving at the request of the Corporation, as a director, officer, employee or agent of another Corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise against any liability asserted against such person and incurred by such person in any such capacity, or arising out of such person’s status as such, whether or not the Corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such liability under the provisions of this Article VII.

 

Section 10.         For purposes of Article VII, references to “the Corporation” shall include, in addition to the resulting corporation, any constituent corporation (including any constituent of a constituent) absorbed in a consolidation or merger which, if its separate existence had continued, would have had the power and authority to indemnify its directors, officers and employees or agents, so that any person who is or was a director, officer, employee or agent of such constituent corporation, or is or was serving at the request of such constituent corporation as a director, officer, employee or agent of another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust, employee benefit plan or other enterprise, shall stand in the same position under Article VII with respect to the resulting or surviving corporation as such person would have with respect to such constituent corporation if its separate existence had continued.

 

Section 11.         For purposes of Article VII, references to “other enterprises” shall include employee benefit plans; references to “fines” shall include any excise taxes assessed on a person with respect to any employee benefit plan; and references to “serving at the request of the Corporation” shall include any service as a director, officer, employee or agent of the Corporation which imposes duties on, or involves service by, such director, officer, employee, or agent, as the case may be, with respect to an employee benefit plan, its participants, or beneficiaries; and a person who acted in good faith and in a manner that person reasonably believed to be in the interest of the participants and beneficiaries of an employee benefit plan shall be deemed to have acted in a manner “not opposed to the best interests of the Corporation” as referred to in Article VII.

 

Section 12.         The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by, or granted pursuant to this Article VII shall, unless otherwise provided when authorized or ratified, continue as to a person who has ceased to be a director, officer, employee or agent and shall inure to the benefit of the heirs, executors and administrators of such person.

 

Section 13.         Notwithstanding anything contained in this Article VII to the contrary, except for proceedings to enforce rights to indemnification (which shall be governed by Section 6 hereof), the Corporation shall not be obligated to indemnify any director or officer (or his or her heirs, executors or personal or legal representatives) or advance expenses in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such person unless such proceeding (or part thereof) was authorized or consented to by the board of directors of the Corporation.

 

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Section 14.         The Corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by the board of directors, provide rights to indemnification and to the advancement of expenses to employees and agents of the Corporation similar to those conferred in this Article VII to directors and officers of the Corporation.

 

ARTICLE VIII
GENERAL PROVISIONS


 

DIVIDENDS

Section 1.          Dividends upon the capital stock of the Corporation subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation, if any, may be declared by the board of directors at any regular or special meeting, pursuant to law. Dividends may be paid in cash, in property, or in shares of the capital stock, subject to the provisions of the certificate of incorporation.

 

Section 2.          Before payment of any dividend, there may be set aside out of any funds of the Corporation available for dividends such sum or sums as the directors from time to time, in their absolute discretion, think proper as a reserve or reserves to meet contingencies, or for equalizing dividends, or for repairing or maintaining any property of the Corporation, or for such other purpose as the directors shall think conducive to the interest of the Corporation, and the directors may modify or abolish any such reserve in the manner in which it was created.

 

CHECKS

 

Section 3.          All checks or demands for money and notes of the Corporation shall be signed by such officer or officers or such other person or persons as the board of directors may from time to time designate.

 

FISCAL YEAR

 

Section 4.          The fiscal year of the Corporation shall be fixed, and shall be subject to change, by the Board of Directors.

 

SEAL

 

Section 5.          The corporate shall not be required to have a seal.

 

ARTICLE IX
AMENDMENTS

 

Section 1.          These by-laws may be altered, amended, restated or repealed or new by-laws may be adopted by the board of directors or the stockholders as provided in the certificate of incorporation.

  

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