Amended And Restated

Amended and Restated By-Laws of Aerie Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

by Aerie Pharmaceuticals
October 31st, 2013

Exhibit 3.2

AMENDED AND RESTATED BY-LAWS

OF

AERIE PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.


Table of Contents

 

          Page  

ARTICLE I

  

STOCKHOLDERS

     1   

1.1.

  

Place of Meetings

     1   

1.2.

  

Annual Meeting

     1   

1.3.

  

Special Meetings

     1   

1.4.

  

Notice of Meetings

     1   

1.5.

  

Voting List

     1   

1.6.

  

Quorum

     2   

1.7.

  

Adjournments

     2   

1.8.

  

Voting and Proxies

     2   

1.9.

  

Action at Meeting

     3   

1.10.

  

Nomination of Directors.

     3   

1.11.

  

Notice of Business at Annual Meetings.

     6   

1.12.

  

Conduct of Meetings.

     8   

1.13.

  

No Action by Consent in Lieu of a Meeting

     9   

ARTICLE II

  

DIRECTORS

     9   

2.1.

  

General Powers

     9   

2.2.

  

Number, Election and Qualification

     9   

2.3.

  

Chairman of the Board; Vice Chairman of the Board

     9   

2.4.

  

Classes of Directors

     10   

2.5.

  

Terms of Office

     10   

2.6.

  

Quorum

     10   

2.7.

  

Action at Meeting

     10   

2.8.

  

Removal

     10   

2.9.

  

Vacancies

     10   

2.10.

  

Resignation

     10   

2.11.

  

Regular Meetings

     11   

2.12.

  

Special Meetings

     11   

2.13.

  

Notice of Special Meetings

     11   

2.14.

  

Meetings by Conference Communications Equipment

     11   

2.15.

  

Action by Consent

     11   

2.16.

  

Committees

     11   

2.17.

  

Compensation of Directors

     12   

ARTICLE III

  

OFFICERS

     12   

3.1.

  

Titles

     12   

3.2.

  

Election

     12   

3.3.

  

Qualification

     12   

3.4.

  

Tenure

     12   

3.5.

  

Resignation and Removal

     12   

3.6.

  

Vacancies

     13   

3.7.

  

President; Chief Executive Officer

     13   

3.8.

  

Vice Presidents

     13   

3.9.

  

Secretary and Assistant Secretaries

     13   

3.10.

  

Treasurer and Assistant Treasurers

     14   

3.11.

  

Delegation of Authority

     14   

 

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Table of Contents

(continued)

 

          Page  

ARTICLE IV

  

CAPITAL STOCK

     14   

4.1.

  

Issuance of Stock

     14   

4.2.

  

Stock Certificates; Uncertificated Shares

     15   

4.3.

  

Transfers

     15   

4.4.

  

Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates

     16   

4.5.

  

Record Date

     16   

4.6.

  

Regulations

     16   

ARTICLE V

  

INDEMNIFICATION

     17   

5.1.

  

Actions, Suits and Proceedings Other than by or in the Right of the Corporation

     17   

5.2.

  

Actions or Suits by or in the Right of the Corporation

     17   

5.3.

  

Indemnification for Expenses of Successful Party

     18   

5.4.

  

Notification and Defense of Claim

     18   

5.5.

  

Advancement of Expenses

     18   

5.6.

  

Procedure for Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses

     19   

5.7.

  

Remedies

     19   

5.8.

  

Limitations

     20   

5.9.

  

Subsequent Amendment

     20   

5.10.

  

Other Rights

     20   

5.11.

  

Partial Indemnification

     20   

5.12.

  

Insurance

     20   

5.13.

  

Savings Clause

     21   

5.14.

  

Definitions

     21   

ARTICLE VI

  

GENERAL PROVISIONS

     21   

6.1.

  

Fiscal Year

     21   

6.2.

  

Corporate Seal

     21   

6.3.

  

Waiver of Notice

     21   

6.4.

  

Voting of Securities

     21   

6.5.

  

Evidence of Authority

     22   

6.6.

  

Reliance upon Books, Reports and Records

     22   

6.7.

  

Checks, Notes, Drafts, Etc.

     22   

6.8.

  

Dividends

     22   

6.9.

  

Certificate of Incorporation

     22   

6.10.

  

Severability and Inconsistency

     22   

6.11.

  

Pronouns

     22   

ARTICLE VII

  

AMENDMENTS

     22   

 

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ARTICLE I

STOCKHOLDERS

1.1. Place of Meetings. All meetings of stockholders shall be held at such place as may be designated from time to time by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the President or, if not so designated, at the principal office of the corporation. The Board of Directors may, in its sole discretion, determine that the meeting shall not be held at any place, but may instead be held solely by means of remote communication.

1.2. Annual Meeting. The annual meeting of stockholders for the election of directors to succeed those whose terms expire and for the transaction of such other business as may properly be brought before the meeting shall be held on a date and at a time designated by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the President (which date shall not be a legal holiday in the place, if any, where the meeting is to be held).

1.3. Special Meetings. Special meetings of stockholders for any purpose or purposes may be called at any time by only the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer, and may not be called by any other person or persons. The Board of Directors may postpone or reschedule any previously scheduled special meeting of stockholders. Business transacted at any special meeting of stockholders shall be limited to matters relating to the purpose or purposes stated in the notice of meeting.

1.4. Notice of Meetings. Except as otherwise provided by law, notice of each meeting of stockholders, whether annual or special, shall be given not less than 10 nor more than 60 days before the date of the meeting to each stockholder entitled to vote at such meeting. Without limiting the manner by which notice otherwise may be given to stockholders, any notice shall be effective if given by a form of electronic transmission consented to (in a manner consistent with the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware) by the stockholder to whom the notice is given. The notices of all meetings shall state the place, if any, date and hour of the meeting, the means of remote communications, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting and the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, if such date is different from the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of the meeting. The notice of a special meeting shall state, in addition, the purpose or purposes for which the meeting is called. If notice is given by mail, such notice shall be deemed given when deposited in the United States mail, postage prepaid, directed to the stockholder at such stockholder’s address as it appears on the records of the corporation. If notice is given by electronic transmission, such notice shall be deemed given at the time specified in Section 232 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

1.5. Voting List. The Secretary shall prepare, at least 10 days before every meeting of stockholders, a complete list of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, arranged in alphabetical order, and showing the address


of each stockholder and the number of shares registered in the name of each stockholder. The corporation shall not be required to include electronic mail addresses or other electronic contact information on such list. Such list shall be open to the examination of any stockholder, for any purpose germane to the meeting, for a period of at least 10 days prior to the meeting: (a) on a reasonably accessible electronic network, provided that the information required to gain access to such list is provided with the notice of the meeting, or (b) during ordinary business hours, at the principal place of business of the corporation. In the event that the corporation determines to make the list available on an electronic network, the corporation may take reasonable steps to ensure that such information is available only to stockholders of the corporation. If the meeting is to be held at a place, then a list of stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting shall be produced and kept at the time and place of the meeting during the whole time thereof and may be examined by any stockholder who is present. If the meeting is to be held solely by means of remote communication, then such list shall also be open to the examination of any stockholder during the whole time of the meeting on a reasonably accessible electronic network, and the information required to access such list shall be provided with the notice of the meeting. The list shall presumptively determine the identity of the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting and the number of shares held by each of them.

1.6. Quorum. Except as otherwise provided by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws, the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of the capital stock of the corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote at the meeting, present in person, present by means of remote communication in a manner, if any, authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business; provided, however, that where a separate vote by a class or classes or series of capital stock is required by law or the Certificate of Incorporation, the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of such class or classes or series of the capital stock of the corporation issued and outstanding and entitled to vote on such matter, present in person, present by means of remote communication in a manner, if any, authorized by the Board of Directors in its sole discretion, or represented by proxy, shall constitute a quorum entitled to take action with respect to the vote on such matter. A quorum, once established at a meeting, shall not be broken by the withdrawal of enough votes to leave less than a quorum.

1.7. Adjournments. Any meeting of stockholders may be adjourned from time to time to any other time and to any other place at which a meeting of stockholders may be held under these By-laws by the chairman of the meeting or by the stockholders present or represented at the meeting and entitled to vote, although less than a quorum. It shall not be necessary to notify any stockholder of any adjournment of less than 30 days if the time and place, if any, of the adjourned meeting, and the means of remote communication, if any, by which stockholders and proxyholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such adjourned meeting, are announced at the meeting at which adjournment is taken, unless after the adjournment a new record date is fixed for the adjourned meeting. At the adjourned meeting, the corporation may transact any business which might have been transacted at the original meeting.

1.8. Voting and Proxies. Each stockholder shall have one vote for each share of stock entitled to vote held of record by such stockholder, unless otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation. Each stockholder of record entitled to vote at a meeting of stockholders may vote in person (including by means of remote communications, if any, by

 

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which stockholders may be deemed to be present in person and vote at such meeting) or may authorize another person or persons to vote for such stockholder by a proxy executed or transmitted in a manner permitted by the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware by the stockholder or such stockholder’s authorized agent and delivered (including by electronic transmission) to the Secretary of the corporation. No such proxy shall be voted upon after three years from the date of its execution, unless the proxy expressly provides for a longer period.

1.9. Action at Meeting. When a quorum is present at any meeting, any matter other than the election of directors to be voted upon by the stockholders at such meeting shall be decided by the vote of the holders of shares of stock having a majority in voting power of the votes cast by the holders of all of the shares of stock present or represented at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter (or if there are two or more classes or series of stock entitled to vote as separate classes, then in the case of each such class or series, the holders of a majority in voting power of the shares of stock of that class or series present or represented at the meeting and voting affirmatively or negatively on such matter), except when a different vote is required by law, the Certificate of Incorporation or these By-laws. When a quorum is present at any meeting, any election by stockholders of directors shall be determined by a plurality of the votes cast by the stockholders entitled to vote on the election.

1.10. Nomination of Directors.

(a) Except for (1) any directors entitled to be elected by the holders of preferred stock, (2) any directors elected in accordance with Section 2.9 hereof by the Board of Directors to fill a vacancy or newly-created directorship or (3) as otherwise required by applicable law or stock exchange regulation, at any meeting of stockholders, only persons who are nominated in accordance with the procedures in this Section 1.10 shall be eligible for election as directors. Nomination for election to the Board of Directors at a meeting of stockholders may be made (i) by or at the direction of the Board of Directors or (ii) by any stockholder of the corporation who (x) timely complies with the notice procedures in Section 1.10(b), (y) is a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of such notice and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting and (z) is entitled to vote at such meeting.

(b) To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be received in writing by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation as follows: (i) in the case of an election of directors at an annual meeting of stockholders, not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that (x) in the case of the annual meeting of stockholders of the corporation to be held in 2014 or (y) in the event that the date of the annual meeting in any other year is advanced by more than 30 days, or delayed by more than 60 days, from the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice must be so received not earlier than the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (A) the 90th day prior to such annual meeting and (B) the tenth day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever first occurs; or (ii) in the case of an election of directors at a special meeting of stockholders, provided that the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer has determined, in accordance with Section 1.3, that directors shall be

 

3


elected at such special meeting and provided further that the nomination made by the stockholder is for one of the director positions that the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or the Chief Executive Officer, as the case may be, has determined will be filled at such special meeting, not earlier than the 120th day prior to such special meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (x) the 90th day prior to such special meeting and (y) the tenth day following the day on which notice of the date of such special meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such special meeting was made, whichever first occurs. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of a meeting (or the public disclosure thereof) commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice.

The stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth: (A) as to each proposed nominee (1) such person’s name, age, business address and, if known, residence address, (2) such person’s principal occupation or employment, (3) the class and series and number of shares of stock or other securities or indebtedness of the corporation or any of its subsidiaries that are, directly or indirectly, owned, beneficially or of record, by such person, (4) a description of all direct and indirect compensation and other material monetary agreements, arrangements and understandings during the past three years, and any other material relationships, between or among (x) the stockholder, the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made and the respective affiliates and associates of, or others acting in concert with, such stockholder and such beneficial owner, on the one hand, and (y) each proposed nominee, and his or her respective affiliates and associates, or others acting in concert with such nominee(s), on the other hand, including all information that would be required to be disclosed pursuant to Item 404 of Regulation S-K if the stockholder making the nomination and any beneficial owner on whose behalf the nomination is made or any affiliate or associate thereof or person acting in concert therewith were the “registrant” for purposes of such Item and the proposed nominee were a director or executive officer of such registrant, and (5) any other information concerning such person that must be disclosed as to nominees in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for the election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended (the “Exchange Act”) and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder; and (B) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is being made (1) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the corporation’s books, and of such beneficial owner, (2) the class and series and number of shares of stock of the corporation that are, directly or indirectly, owned, beneficially or of record, by such stockholder and such beneficial owner, (3) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding between or among such stockholder and/or such beneficial owner and each proposed nominee and any other person or persons (including their names) pursuant to which the nomination(s) are being made or who may participate in the solicitation of proxies in favor of electing such nominee(s), (4) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, swaps, profit interests, options, warrants, convertible securities, stock appreciation or similar rights, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into by, or on behalf of, such stockholder or such beneficial owner, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such stockholder or such beneficial owner with respect to shares of stock or other securities or indebtedness of the corporation or any of its subsidiaries, (5) any other information relating to such stockholder and such beneficial owner that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for the

 

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election of directors in a contested election pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, (6) a representation that such stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the meeting to nominate the person(s) named in its notice and (7) a representation whether such stockholder and/or such beneficial owner intends or is part of a group which intends (x) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the corporation’s outstanding capital stock reasonably believed by such stockholder or such beneficial owner to be sufficient to elect the nominee (and such representation shall be included in any such proxy statement and form of proxy) and/or (y) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such nomination (and such representation shall be included in any such solicitation materials). Not later than 10 days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, the information required by Items (A)(1)-(5) and (B)(1)-(5) of the prior sentence shall be supplemented by the stockholder giving the notice to provide updated information as of such record date. In addition, to be effective, the stockholder’s notice must be accompanied by the written consent of the proposed nominee to serve as a director if elected. The corporation may require any proposed nominee to furnish such other information as the corporation may reasonably require to determine the eligibility of such proposed nominee to serve as a director of the corporation or whether such nominee would be independent under applicable Securities and Exchange Commission and stock exchange rules and the corporation’s publicly disclosed corporate governance guidelines. A stockholder shall not have complied with this Section 1.10(b) if the stockholder (or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made) solicits or does not solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s nominee in contravention of the representations with respect thereto required by this Section 1.10.

(c) The chairman of any meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether a nomination was made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.10 (including whether the stockholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the nomination is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s nominee in compliance with the representations with respect thereto required by this Section 1.10), and if the chairman should determine that a nomination was not made in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.10, the chairman shall so declare to the meeting and such nomination shall not be brought before the meeting.

(d) Except as otherwise required by law, nothing in this Section 1.10 shall obligate the corporation or the Board of Directors to include in any proxy statement or other stockholder communication distributed on behalf of the corporation or the Board of Directors information with respect to any nominee for director submitted by a stockholder.

(e) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.10, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the meeting to present a nomination, such nomination shall not be brought before the meeting, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such nominee may have been received by the corporation. For purposes of this Section 1.10, to be considered a “qualified representative of the stockholder”, a person must be authorized by a written instrument executed by such stockholder or an electronic transmission delivered by such stockholder to act for such stockholder as proxy at the meeting of stockholders and such person must produce such written instrument or electronic transmission, or a reliable reproduction of the written instrument or electronic transmission, at the meeting of stockholders.

 

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(f) For purposes of this Section 1.10, “public disclosure” shall include disclosure in a press release reported by the Dow Jones News Service, Associated Press or comparable national news service or in a document publicly filed by the corporation with the Securities and Exchange Commission pursuant to Section 13, 14 or 15(d) of the Exchange Act.

1.11. Notice of Business at Annual Meetings.

(a) At any annual meeting of the stockholders, only such business shall be conducted as shall have been properly brought before the meeting. To be properly brought before an annual meeting, business must be (1) specified in the notice of meeting (or any supplement thereto) given by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, (2) otherwise properly brought before the meeting by or at the direction of the Board of Directors, or (3) properly brought before the meeting by a stockholder. For business to be properly brought before an annual meeting by a stockholder, (i) if such business relates to the nomination of a person for election as a director of the corporation, the procedures in Section 1.10 must be complied with and (ii) if such business relates to any other matter, the business must constitute a proper matter under Delaware law for stockholder action and the stockholder must (x) have given timely notice thereof in writing to the Secretary in accordance with the procedures in Section 1.11(b), (y) be a stockholder of record on the date of the giving of such notice and on the record date for the determination of stockholders entitled to vote at such annual meeting and (z) be entitled to vote at such annual meeting.

(b) To be timely, a stockholder’s notice must be received in writing by the Secretary at the principal executive offices of the corporation not less than 90 days nor more than 120 days prior to the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting; provided, however, that (x) in the case of the annual meeting of stockholders of the corporation to be held in 2014 or (y) in the event that the date of the annual meeting in any other year is advanced by more than 30 days, or delayed by more than 60 days, from the first anniversary of the preceding year’s annual meeting, a stockholder’s notice must be so received not earlier than the 120th day prior to such annual meeting and not later than the close of business on the later of (A) the 90th day prior to such annual meeting and (B) the tenth day following the day on which notice of the date of such annual meeting was mailed or public disclosure of the date of such annual meeting was made, whichever first occurs. In no event shall the adjournment or postponement of an annual meeting (or the public disclosure thereof) commence a new time period (or extend any time period) for the giving of a stockholder’s notice.

The stockholder’s notice to the Secretary shall set forth: (A) as to each matter the stockholder proposes to bring before the annual meeting (1) a brief description of the business desired to be brought before the annual meeting, (2) the text of the proposal (including the exact text of any resolutions proposed for consideration and, in the event that such business includes a proposal to amend the By-laws, the exact text of the proposed amendment), and (3) the reasons for conducting such business at the annual meeting, and (B) as to the stockholder giving the notice and the beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is being made (1) the name and address of such stockholder, as they appear on the corporation’s books, and of

 

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such beneficial owner, (2) the class and series and number of shares of stock or other securities or indebtedness of the corporation or any of its subsidiaries that are, directly or indirectly, owned, beneficially or of record, by such stockholder and such beneficial owner, (3) a description of any material interest of such stockholder or such beneficial owner and the respective affiliates and associates of, or others acting in concert with, such stockholder or such beneficial owner in such business, (4) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding between or among such stockholder and/or such beneficial owner and any other person or persons (including their names) in connection with the proposal of such business or who may participate in the solicitation of proxies in favor of such proposal, (5) a description of any agreement, arrangement or understanding (including any derivative or short positions, swaps, profit interests, options, warrants, convertible securities, stock appreciation or similar rights, hedging transactions, and borrowed or loaned shares) that has been entered into by, or on behalf of, such stockholder or such beneficial owner, the effect or intent of which is to mitigate loss to, manage risk or benefit of share price changes for, or increase or decrease the voting power of, such stockholder or such beneficial owner with respect to shares of stock or other securities or indebtedness of the corporation or any of its subsidiaries, (6) any other information relating to such stockholder and such beneficial owner that would be required to be disclosed in a proxy statement or other filings required to be made in connection with solicitations of proxies for the business proposed pursuant to Section 14 of the Exchange Act and the rules and regulations promulgated thereunder, (7) a representation that such stockholder intends to appear in person or by proxy at the annual meeting to bring such business before the meeting and (8) a representation whether such stockholder and/or such beneficial owner intends or is part of a group which intends (x) to deliver a proxy statement and/or form of proxy to holders of at least the percentage of the corporation’s outstanding capital stock required to approve or adopt the proposal (and such representation shall be included in any such proxy statement and form of proxy) and/or (y) otherwise to solicit proxies from stockholders in support of such proposal (and such representation shall be included in any such solicitation materials). Not later than 10 days after the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at the meeting, the information required by Items (A)(3) and (B)(1)-(6) of the prior sentence shall be supplemented by the stockholder giving the notice to provide updated information as of such record date. Notwithstanding anything in these By-laws to the contrary, no business shall be conducted at any annual meeting of stockholders except in accordance with the procedures in this Section 1.11; provided that any stockholder proposal which complies with Rule 14a-8 of the proxy rules (or any successor provision) promulgated under the Exchange Act and is to be included in the corporation’s proxy statement for an annual meeting of stockholders shall be deemed to comply with the notice requirements of this Section 1.11. A stockholder shall not have complied with this Section 1.11(b) if the stockholder (or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made) solicits or does not solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s proposal in contravention of the representations with respect thereto required by this Section 1.11.

(c) The chairman of any annual meeting shall have the power and duty to determine whether business was properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.11 (including whether the stockholder or beneficial owner, if any, on whose behalf the proposal is made solicited (or is part of a group which solicited) or did not so solicit, as the case may be, proxies in support of such stockholder’s proposal in compliance with the representation with respect thereto required by this Section 1.11), and if the

 

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chairman should determine that business was not properly brought before the annual meeting in accordance with the provisions of this Section 1.11, the chairman shall so declare to the meeting and such business shall not be brought before the annual meeting.

(d) Except as otherwise required by law, nothing in this Section 1.11 shall obligate the corporation or the Board of Directors to include in any proxy statement or other stockholder communication distributed on behalf of the corporation or the Board of Directors information with respect to any proposal submitted by a stockholder.

(e) Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this Section 1.11, unless otherwise required by law, if the stockholder (or a qualified representative of the stockholder) does not appear at the annual meeting to present business, such business shall not be considered, notwithstanding that proxies in respect of such business may have been received by the corporation.

(f) For purposes of this Section 1.11, the terms “qualified representative of the stockholder” and “public disclosure” shall have the same meaning as in Section 1.10.

1.12. Conduct of Meetings.

(a) Meetings of stockholders shall be presided over by the Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the Chairman’s absence by the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, or in the Vice Chairman’s absence by the Chief Executive Officer, or in the Chief Executive Officer’s absence, by the President, or in the President’s absence by a Vice President, or in the absence of all of the foregoing persons by a chairman designated by the Board of Directors. The Secretary shall act as secretary of the meeting, but in the Secretary’s absence the chairman of the meeting may appoint any person to act as secretary of the meeting.

(b) The Board of Directors may adopt by resolution such rules, regulations and procedures for the conduct of any meeting of stockholders of the corporation as it shall deem appropriate including, without limitation, such guidelines and procedures as it may deem appropriate regarding the participation by means of remote communication of stockholders and proxyholders not physically present at a meeting. Except to the extent inconsistent with such rules, regulations and procedures as adopted by the Board of Directors, the chairman of any meeting of stockholders shall have the right and authority to prescribe such rules, regulations and procedures and to do all such acts as, in the judgment of such chairman, are appropriate for the proper conduct of the meeting. Such rules, regulations or procedures, whether adopted by the Board of Directors or prescribed by the chairman of the meeting, may include, without limitation, the following: (i) the establishment of an agenda or order of business for the meeting; (ii) rules and procedures for maintaining order at the meeting and the safety of those present; (iii) limitations on attendance at or participation in the meeting to stockholders of record of the corporation, their duly authorized and constituted proxies or such other persons as shall be determined; (iv) restrictions on entry to the meeting after the time fixed for the commencement thereof; and (v) limitations on the time allotted to questions or comments by participants. Unless and to the extent determined by the Board of Directors or the chairman of the meeting, meetings of stockholders shall not be required to be held in accordance with the rules of parliamentary procedure.

 

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(c) The chairman of the meeting shall announce at the meeting when the polls for each matter to be voted upon at the meeting will be opened and closed. After the polls close, no ballots, proxies or votes or any revocations or changes thereto may be accepted.

(d) In advance of any meeting of stockholders, the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer or the President shall appoint one or more inspectors of election to act at the meeting and make a written report thereof. One or more other persons may be designated as alternate inspectors to replace any inspector who fails to act. If no inspector or alternate is present, ready and willing to act at a meeting of stockholders, the chairman of the meeting shall appoint one or more inspectors to act at the meeting. Unless otherwise required by law, inspectors may be officers, employees or agents of the corporation. Each inspector, before entering upon the discharge of such inspector’s duties, shall take and sign an oath faithfully to execute the duties of inspector with strict impartiality and according to the best of such inspector’s ability. The inspector shall have the duties prescribed by law and shall take charge of the polls and, when the vote is completed, shall make a certificate of the result of the vote taken and of such other facts as may be required by law. Every vote taken by ballots shall be counted by a duly appointed inspector or duly appointed inspectors.

1.13. No Action by Consent in Lieu of a Meeting. Stockholders of the corporation may not take any action by written consent in lieu of a meeting.

ARTICLE II

DIRECTORS

2.1. General Powers. The business and affairs of the corporation shall be managed by or under the direction of a Board of Directors, who may exercise all of the powers of the corporation except as otherwise provided by law or the Certificate of Incorporation.

2.2. Number, Election and Qualification. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, the number of directors of the corporation shall be fixed from time to time only by the Board of Directors. Election of directors need not be by written ballot. Directors need not be stockholders of the corporation.

2.3. Chairman of the Board; Vice Chairman of the Board. The Board of Directors may appoint from its members a Chairman of the Board and a Vice Chairman of the Board, neither of whom need be an employee or officer of the corporation. If the Board of Directors appoints a Chairman of the Board, such Chairman shall perform such duties and possess such powers as are assigned by the Board of Directors and, if the Chairman of the Board is also designated as the corporation’s Chief Executive Officer, shall have the powers and duties of the Chief Executive Officer prescribed in Section 3.7 of these By-laws. If the Board of Directors appoints a Vice Chairman of the Board, such Vice Chairman shall perform such duties and possess such powers as are assigned by the Board of Directors. Unless otherwise provided by the Board of Directors, the Chairman of the Board or, in the Chairman’s absence, the Vice Chairman of the Board, if any, shall preside at all meetings of the Board of Directors.

 

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2.4. Classes of Directors. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, the Board of Directors shall be and is divided into three classes: Class I, Class II and Class III. Each class shall consist, as nearly as may be possible, of one-third of the total number of directors constituting the entire Board of Directors. The allocation of directors among classes shall be determined by resolution of the Board of Directors.

2.5. Terms of Office. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock to elect directors, each director shall serve for a term ending on the date of the third annual meeting of stockholders following the annual meeting of stockholders at which such director was elected; provided that each director initially assigned to Class I shall serve for a term expiring at the corporation’s first annual meeting of stockholders held after the effectiveness of these Amended and Restated By-laws; each director initially assigned to Class II shall serve for a term expiring at the corporation’s second annual meeting of stockholders held after the effectiveness of these Amended and Restated By-laws; and each director initially assigned to Class III shall serve for a term expiring at the corporation’s third annual meeting of stockholders held after the effectiveness of these Amended and Restated By-laws; provided further, that the term of each director shall continue until the election and qualification of his or her successor and be subject to his or her earlier death, resignation or removal.

2.6. Quorum. The greater of (a) a majority of the directors at any time in office and (b) one-third of the number of directors fixed by the Board of Directors pursuant to Section 2.2 of these By-laws shall constitute a quorum of the Board of Directors. If at any meeting of the Board of Directors there shall be less than such a quorum, a majority of the directors present may adjourn the meeting from time to time without further notice other than announcement at the meeting, until a quorum shall be present.

2.7. Action at Meeting. Every act or decision done or made by a majority of the directors present at a meeting duly held at which a quorum is present shall be regarded as the act of the Board of Directors, unless a greater number is required by law or by the Certificate of Incorporation.

2.8. Removal. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock, directors of the corporation may be removed only for cause.

2.9. Vacancies. Subject to the rights of holders of any series of Preferred Stock, any vacancy or newly-created directorship on the Board of Directors, however occurring, shall be filled only by vote of a majority of the directors then in office, although less than a quorum, or by a sole remaining director and shall not be filled by the stockholders. A director elected to fill a vacancy shall hold office until the next election of the class for which such director shall have been chosen, subject to the election and qualification of a successor or until such director’s earlier death, resignation or removal.

2.10. Resignation. Any director may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the corporation at its principal office or to the Chairman

 

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of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon delivery unless it is specified to be effective at some later time or upon the happening of some later event.

2.11. Regular Meetings. Regular meetings of the Board of Directors may be held without notice at such time and place as shall be determined from time to time by the Board of Directors; provided that any director who is absent when such a determination is made shall be given notice of the determination. A regular meeting of the Board of Directors may be held without notice immediately after and at the same place as the annual meeting of stockholders.

2.12. Special Meetings. Special meetings of the Board of Directors may be held at any time and place designated in a call by the Chairman of the Board, the Chief Executive Officer, the President, two or more directors, or by one director in the event that there is only a single director in office.

2.13. Notice of Special Meetings. Notice of the date, place and time of any special meeting of directors shall be given to each director by the Secretary or by the officer or one of the directors calling the meeting. Notice shall be duly given to each director (a) in person or by telephone at least 24 hours in advance of the meeting, (b) by sending written notice by reputable overnight courier, telecopy, facsimile or electronic transmission, or delivering written notice by hand, to such director’s last known business, home or electronic transmission address at least 24 hours in advance of the meeting, or (c) by sending written notice by first-class mail to such director’s last known business or home address at least 72 hours in advance of the meeting. A notice or waiver of notice of a meeting of the Board of Directors need not specify the purposes of the meeting.

2.14. Meetings by Conference Communications Equipment. Directors may participate in meetings of the Board of Directors or any committee thereof by means of conference telephone or other communications equipment by means of which all persons participating in the meeting can hear each other, and participation by such means shall constitute presence in person at such meeting.

2.15. Action by Consent. Any action required or permitted to be taken at any meeting of the Board of Directors or of any committee thereof may be taken without a meeting, if all members of the Board of Directors or committee, as the case may be, consent to the action in writing or by electronic transmission, and the written consents or electronic transmissions are filed with the minutes of proceedings of the Board of Directors or committee. Such filing shall be in paper form if the minutes are maintained in paper form and shall be in electronic form if the minutes are maintained in electronic form.

2.16. Committees. The Board of Directors may designate one or more committees, each committee to consist of one or more of the directors of the corporation with such lawfully delegable powers and duties as the Board of Directors thereby confers, to serve at the pleasure of the Board of Directors. The Board of Directors may designate one or more directors as alternate members of any committee, who may replace any absent or disqualified member at any meeting of the committee. In the absence or disqualification of a member of a committee, the member or members of the committee present at any meeting and not disqualified

 

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from voting, whether or not such member or members constitute a quorum, may unanimously appoint another member of the Board of Directors to act at the meeting in the place of any such absent or disqualified member. Any such committee, to the extent provided in the resolution of the Board of Directors and subject to the provisions of law, shall have and may exercise all the powers and authority of the Board of Directors in the management of the business and affairs of the corporation and may authorize the seal of the corporation to be affixed to all papers which may require it. Each such committee shall keep minutes and make such reports as the Board of Directors may from time to time request. Except as the Board of Directors may otherwise determine, any committee may make rules for the conduct of its business, but unless otherwise provided by the directors or in such rules, its business shall be conducted as nearly as possible in the same manner as is provided in these By-laws for the Board of Directors. Except as otherwise provided in the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-laws, or the resolution of the Board of Directors designating the committee, a committee may create one or more subcommittees, each subcommittee to consist of one or more members of the committee, and delegate to a subcommittee any or all of the powers and authority of the committee.

2.17. Compensation of Directors. Directors may be paid such compensation for their services and such reimbursement for expenses of attendance at meetings as the Board of Directors may from time to time determine. No such payment shall preclude any director from serving the corporation or any of its parent or subsidiary entities in any other capacity and receiving compensation for such service.

ARTICLE III

OFFICERS

3.1. Titles. The officers of the corporation shall consist of a Chief Executive Officer, a Chief Financial Officer, a President, a Secretary, a Treasurer and such other officers with such other titles as the Board of Directors shall determine, including one or more Vice Presidents, Assistant Treasurers and Assistant Secretaries. The Board of Directors may appoint such other officers as it may deem appropriate.

3.2. Election. The Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer, President, Treasurer and Secretary shall be elected annually by the Board of Directors at its first meeting following the annual meeting of stockholders. Other officers may be appointed by the Board of Directors at such meeting or at any other meeting.

3.3. Qualification. No officer need be a stockholder. Any two or more offices may be held by the same person.

3.4. Tenure. Except as otherwise provided by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-laws, each officer shall hold office until such officer’s successor is elected and qualified, unless a different term is specified in the resolution electing or appointing such officer, or until such officer’s earlier death, resignation or removal.

 

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3.5. Resignation and Removal. Any officer may resign by delivering a resignation in writing or by electronic transmission to the corporation at its principal office or to the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Secretary. Such resignation shall be effective upon receipt unless it is specified to be effective at some later time or upon the happening of some later event. Any officer may be removed at any time, with or without cause, by vote of a majority of the directors then in office. Except as the Board of Directors may otherwise determine, no officer who resigns or is removed shall have any right to any compensation as an officer for any period following such officer’s resignation or removal, or any right to damages on account of such removal, whether such officer’s compensation be by the month or by the year or otherwise, unless such compensation is expressly provided for in a duly authorized written agreement with the corporation.

3.6. Vacancies. The Board of Directors may fill any vacancy occurring in any office for any reason and may, in its discretion, leave unfilled for such period as it may determine any offices other than those of Chief Executive Officer, President, Treasurer and Secretary. Each such successor shall hold office for the unexpired term of such officer’s predecessor and until a successor is elected and qualified, or until such officer’s earlier death, resignation or removal.

3.7. President; Chief Executive Officer. Unless the Board of Directors has designated another person as the corporation’s Chief Executive Officer, the President shall be the Chief Executive Officer of the corporation. The Chief Executive Officer shall have general charge and supervision of the business of the corporation subject to the direction of the Board of Directors, and shall perform all duties and have all powers that are commonly incident to the office of chief executive or that are delegated to such officer by the Board of Directors. The President shall perform such other duties and shall have such other powers as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer (if the President is not the Chief Executive Officer) may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the Chief Executive Officer or the President (if the President is not the Chief Executive Officer), the Vice President (or if there shall be more than one, the Vice Presidents in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties of the Chief Executive Officer and when so performing such duties shall have all the powers of and be subject to all the restrictions upon the Chief Executive Officer.

3.8. Vice Presidents. Each Vice President shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe. The Board of Directors may assign to any Vice President the title of Executive Vice President, Senior Vice President or any other title selected by the Board of Directors.

3.9. Secretary and Assistant Secretaries. The Secretary shall perform such duties and shall have such powers as the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer may from time to time prescribe. In addition, the Secretary shall perform such duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of the secretary, including without limitation the duty and power to give notices of all meetings of stockholders and special meetings of the Board of Directors, to attend all meetings of stockholders and the Board of Directors and keep a record of the proceedings, to maintain a stock ledger and prepare lists of stockholders and their addresses as required, to be custodian of corporate records and the corporate seal and to affix and attest to the same on documents.

 

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Any Assistant Secretary shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the Secretary may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the Secretary, the Assistant Secretary (or if there shall be more than one, the Assistant Secretaries in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Secretary.

In the absence of the Secretary or any Assistant Secretary at any meeting of stockholders or directors, the chairman of the meeting shall designate a temporary secretary to keep a record of the meeting.

3.10. Chief Financial Officer, Treasurer and Assistant Treasurers. The Chief Financial Officer shall perform such duties and shall have such powers as may from time to time be assigned by the Board of Directors or the Chief Executive Officer. In addition, the Chief Financial Officer shall perform such duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of the chief financial officer. The Chief Financial Officer shall be the Treasurer of the corporation unless the Board of Directors shall have designated another officer as the Treasurer. The Treasurer shall perform such duties and shall have such powers as may from time to time be assigned by the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer or the Chief Financial Officer (if the Treasurer is not the Chief Financial Officer). In addition, the Treasurer shall perform such duties and have such powers as are incident to the office of treasurer, including without limitation the duty and power to keep and be responsible for all funds and securities of the corporation, to deposit funds of the corporation in depositories selected in accordance with these By-laws, to disburse such funds as ordered by the Board of Directors, to make proper accounts of such funds, and to render as required by the Board of Directors statements of all such transactions and of the financial condition of the corporation.

The Assistant Treasurers shall perform such duties and possess such powers as the Board of Directors, the Chief Executive Officer, Chief Financial Officer or the Treasurer may from time to time prescribe. In the event of the absence, inability or refusal to act of the Treasurer, the Assistant Treasurer (or if there shall be more than one, the Assistant Treasurers in the order determined by the Board of Directors) shall perform the duties and exercise the powers of the Treasurer.

3.11. Delegation of Authority. The Board of Directors may from time to time delegate the powers or duties of any officer to any other officer or agent, notwithstanding any provision hereof.

ARTICLE IV

CAPITAL STOCK

4.1. Issuance of Stock. Subject to the provisions of the Certificate of Incorporation, the whole or any part of any unissued balance of the authorized capital stock of the corporation or the whole or any part of any shares of the authorized capital stock of the corporation held in the corporation’s treasury may be issued, sold, transferred or otherwise disposed of by vote of the Board of Directors in such manner, for such lawful consideration and on such terms as the Board of Directors may determine.

 

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4.2. Stock Certificates; Uncertificated Shares. The shares of the corporation shall be represented by certificates, provided that the Board of Directors may provide by resolution or resolutions that some or all of any or all classes or series of the corporation’s stock shall be uncertificated shares. Every holder of stock of the corporation represented by certificates shall be entitled to have a certificate, in such form as may be prescribed by law and by the Board of Directors, representing the number of shares held by such holder registered in certificate form. Each such certificate shall be signed in a manner that complies with Section 158 of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

Each certificate for shares of stock which are subject to any restriction on transfer pursuant to the Certificate of Incorporation, these By-laws, applicable securities laws or any agreement among any number of stockholders or among such holders and the corporation shall have conspicuously noted on the face or back of the certificate either the full text of the restriction or a statement of the existence of such restriction.

If the corporation shall be authorized to issue more than one class of stock or more than one series of any class, the powers, designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights shall be set forth in full or summarized on the face or back of each certificate representing shares of such class or series of stock, provided that in lieu of the foregoing requirements there may be set forth on the face or back of each certificate representing shares of such class or series of stock a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests a copy of the full text of the powers, designations, preferences and relative, participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

Within a reasonable time after the issuance or transfer of uncertificated shares, the corporation shall send to the registered owner thereof a written notice containing the information required to be set forth or stated on certificates pursuant to Sections 151, 202(a) or 218(a) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or, with respect to Section 151 of General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware, a statement that the corporation will furnish without charge to each stockholder who so requests the powers, designations, preferences and relative participating, optional or other special rights of each class of stock or series thereof and the qualifications, limitations or restrictions of such preferences and/or rights.

4.3. Transfers. Shares of stock of the corporation shall be transferable in the manner prescribed by law and in these By-laws. Transfers of shares of stock of the corporation shall be made only on the books of the corporation or by transfer agents designated to transfer shares of stock of the corporation. Subject to applicable law, shares of stock represented by certificates shall be transferred only on the books of the corporation by the surrender to the corporation or its transfer agent of the certificate representing such shares properly endorsed or accompanied by a written assignment or power of attorney properly executed, and with such proof of authority or the authenticity of signature as the corporation or its transfer agent may

 

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reasonably require. Except as may be otherwise required by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-laws, the corporation shall be entitled to treat the record holder of stock as shown on its books as the owner of such stock for all purposes, including the payment of dividends and the right to vote with respect to such stock, regardless of any transfer, pledge or other disposition of such stock until the shares have been transferred on the books of the corporation in accordance with the requirements of these By-laws.

4.4. Lost, Stolen or Destroyed Certificates. The corporation may issue a new certificate of stock in place of any previously issued certificate alleged to have been lost, stolen or destroyed, upon such terms and conditions as the Board of Directors may prescribe, including the presentation of reasonable evidence of such loss, theft or destruction and the giving of such indemnity and posting of such bond as the Board of Directors may require for the protection of the corporation or any transfer agent or registrar.

4.5. Record Date. In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to notice of any meeting of stockholders or any adjournment thereof, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted by the Board of Directors, and which record date shall not be more than 60 nor less than 10 days before the date of such meeting. If the Board of Directors so fixes a date, such date shall also be the record date for determining the stockholders entitled to vote at such meeting unless the Board of Directors determines, at the time it fixes such record date, that a later date on or before the date of the meeting shall be the date for making such determination. If no record date is fixed by the Board of Directors, the record date for determining stockholders entitled to notice of and to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall be at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which notice is given, or, if notice is waived, at the close of business on the day next preceding the day on which the meeting is held. A determination of stockholders of record entitled to notice of or to vote at a meeting of stockholders shall apply to any adjournment of the meeting; provided, however, that the Board of Directors may fix a new record date for determination of stockholders entitled to vote at the adjourned meeting, and in such case shall also fix as the record date for stockholders entitled to notice of such adjourned meeting the same or an earlier date as that fixed for determination of stockholders entitled to vote in accordance herewith at the adjourned meeting.

In order that the corporation may determine the stockholders entitled to receive payment of any dividend or other distribution or allotment of any rights or the stockholders entitled to exercise any rights in respect of any change, conversion or exchange of stock, or for the purpose of any other lawful action, the Board of Directors may fix a record date, which record date shall not precede the date upon which the resolution fixing the record date is adopted, and which record date shall be not more than 60 days prior to such action. If no record date is fixed, the record date for determining stockholders for any such purpose shall be at the close of business on the day on which the Board of Directors adopts the resolution relating thereto.

4.6. Regulations. The issue, transfer, conversion and registration of shares of stock of the corporation shall be governed by such other regulations as the Board of Directors may establish.

 

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ARTICLE V

INDEMNIFICATION

5.1. Actions, Suits and Proceedings Other than by or in the Right of the Corporation. The corporation shall indemnify each person who was or is a party or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action, suit or proceeding, whether civil, criminal, administrative or investigative (other than an action by or in the right of the corporation) by reason of the fact that he or she is or was, or has agreed to become, a director or officer of the corporation, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the request of the corporation, as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (including any employee benefit plan) (all such persons being referred to hereafter as an “Indemnitee”), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees), liabilities, losses, judgments, fines (including excise taxes and penalties arising under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974), and amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by or on behalf of Indemnitee in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner which Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had no reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful. The termination of any action, suit or proceeding by judgment, order, settlement, conviction or upon a plea of nolo contendere or its equivalent, shall not, of itself, create a presumption that Indemnitee did not act in good faith and in a manner which Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, and, with respect to any criminal action or proceeding, had reasonable cause to believe that his or her conduct was unlawful.

5.2. Actions or Suits by or in the Right of the Corporation. The corporation shall indemnify any Indemnitee who was or is a party to or threatened to be made a party to any threatened, pending or completed action or suit by or in the right of the corporation to procure a judgment in its favor by reason of the fact that Indemnitee is or was, or has agreed to become, a director or officer of the corporation, or is or was serving, or has agreed to serve, at the request of the corporation, as a director, officer, partner, employee or trustee of, or in a similar capacity with, another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (including any employee benefit plan), or by reason of any action alleged to have been taken or omitted in such capacity, against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) and, to the extent permitted by law, amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by or on behalf of Indemnitee in connection with such action, suit or proceeding and any appeal therefrom, if Indemnitee acted in good faith and in a manner which Indemnitee reasonably believed to be in, or not opposed to, the best interests of the corporation, except that no indemnification shall be made under this Section 5.2 in respect of any claim, issue or matter as to which Indemnitee shall have been adjudged to be liable to the corporation, unless, and only to the extent, that the Court of Chancery of Delaware or the court in which such action or suit was brought shall determine upon application that, despite the adjudication of such liability but in view of all the circumstances of the case, Indemnitee is fairly and reasonably entitled to indemnity for such expenses (including attorneys’ fees) which the Court of Chancery of Delaware or such other court shall deem proper.

 

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5.3. Indemnification for Expenses of Successful Party. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Article V, to the extent that an Indemnitee has been successful, on the merits or otherwise, in defense of any action, suit or proceeding referred to in Sections 5.1 and 5.2, or in defense of any claim, issue or matter therein, or on appeal from any such action, suit or proceeding, Indemnitee shall be indemnified against all expenses (including attorneys’ fees) actually and reasonably incurred by or on behalf of Indemnitee in connection therewith. Without limiting the foregoing, if any action, suit or proceeding is disposed of, on the merits or otherwise (including a disposition without prejudice), without (i) the disposition being adverse to Indemnitee, (ii) an adjudication that Indemnitee was liable to the corporation, (iii) a plea of guilty or nolo contendere by Indemnitee, (iv) an adjudication that Indemnitee did not act in good faith and in a manner he or she reasonably believed to be in or not opposed to the best interests of the corporation, and (v) with respect to any criminal proceeding, an adjudication that Indemnitee had reasonable cause to believe his or her conduct was unlawful, Indemnitee shall be considered for the purposes hereof to have been wholly successful with respect thereto.

5.4. Notification and Defense of Claim. As a condition precedent to an Indemnitee’s right to be indemnified, such Indemnitee must notify the corporation in writing as soon as practicable of any action, suit, proceeding or investigation involving such Indemnitee for which indemnity will or could be sought. With respect to any action, suit, proceeding or investigation of which the corporation is so notified, the corporation will be entitled to participate therein at its own expense and/or to assume the defense thereof at its own expense, with legal counsel reasonably acceptable to Indemnitee. After notice from the corporation to Indemnitee of its election so to assume such defense, the corporation shall not be liable to Indemnitee for any legal or other expenses subsequently incurred by Indemnitee in connection with such action, suit, proceeding or investigation, other than as provided below in this Section 5.4. Indemnitee shall have the right to employ his or her own counsel in connection with such action, suit, proceeding or investigation, but the fees and expenses of such counsel incurred after notice from the corporation of its assumption of the defense thereof shall be at the expense of Indemnitee unless (i) the employment of counsel by Indemnitee has been authorized by the corporation, (ii) counsel to Indemnitee shall have reasonably concluded that there may be a conflict of interest or position on any significant issue between the corporation and Indemnitee in the conduct of the defense of such action, suit, proceeding or investigation or (iii) the corporation shall not in fact have employed counsel to assume the defense of such action, suit, proceeding or investigation, in each of which cases the fees and expenses of counsel for Indemnitee shall be at the expense of the corporation, except as otherwise expressly provided by this Article V. The corporation shall not be entitled, without the consent of Indemnitee, to assume the defense of any claim brought by or in the right of the corporation or as to which counsel for Indemnitee shall have reasonably made the conclusion provided for in clause (ii) above. The corporation shall not be required to indemnify Indemnitee under this Article V for any amounts paid in settlement of any action, suit, proceeding or investigation effected without its written consent. The corporation shall not settle any action, suit, proceeding or investigation in any manner which would impose any penalty or limitation on Indemnitee without Indemnitee’s written consent. Neither the corporation nor Indemnitee will unreasonably withhold or delay its consent to any proposed settlement.

5.5. Advancement of Expenses. Subject to the provisions of Section 5.6, in the event of any threatened or pending action, suit, proceeding or investigation of which the

 

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corporation receives notice under this Article V, any expenses (including attorneys’ fees) incurred by or on behalf of Indemnitee in defending an action, suit, proceeding or investigation or any appeal therefrom shall be paid by the corporation in advance of the final disposition of such matter; provided, however, that the payment of such expenses incurred by or on behalf of Indemnitee in advance of the final disposition of such matter shall be made only upon receipt of an undertaking by or on behalf of Indemnitee to repay all amounts so advanced in the event that it shall ultimately be determined by final judicial decision from which there is no further right to appeal that Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified by the corporation as authorized in this Article V.

5.6. Procedure for Indemnification and Advancement of Expenses. In order to obtain indemnification or advancement of expenses pursuant to Sections 5.1, 5.2, 5.3 or 5.5, an Indemnitee shall submit to the corporation a written request. Any such advancement of expenses shall be made promptly, and in any event within 30 days after receipt by the corporation of the written request of Indemnitee, unless the corporation has assumed the defense pursuant to Section 5.4 (and none of the circumstances described in Section 5.4 that would nonetheless entitle the Indemnitee to indemnification for the fees and expenses of separate counsel have occurred). Any such indemnification, unless ordered by a court, shall be made with respect to requests under Section 5.1 or 5.2 only as authorized in the specific case upon a determination by the corporation that the indemnification of Indemnitee is proper because Indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct set forth in Section 5.1 or 5.2, as the case may be. Such determination shall be made in each instance (a) by a majority vote of the directors of the corporation consisting of persons who are not at that time parties to the action, suit or proceeding in question (“disinterested directors”), whether or not a quorum, (b) by a committee of disinterested directors designated by majority vote of disinterested directors, whether or not a quorum, (c) if there are no disinterested directors, or if the disinterested directors so direct, by independent legal counsel (who may, to the extent permitted by law, be regular legal counsel to the corporation) in a written opinion, or (d) by the stockholders of the corporation.

5.7. Remedies. The right to indemnification or advancement of expenses as granted by this Article V shall be enforceable by Indemnitee in any court of competent jurisdiction. Neither the failure of the corporation to have made a determination prior to the commencement of such action that indemnification is proper in the circumstances because Indemnitee has met the applicable standard of conduct, nor an actual determination by the corporation pursuant to Section 5.6 that Indemnitee has not met such applicable standard of conduct, shall be a defense to the action or create a presumption that Indemnitee has not met the applicable standard of conduct. In any suit brought by Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification, or brought by the corporation to recover an advancement of expenses pursuant to the terms of an undertaking, the corporation shall have the burden of proving that Indemnitee is not entitled to be indemnified, or to such advancement of expenses, under this Article V. Indemnitee’s expenses (including attorneys’ fees) reasonably incurred in connection with successfully establishing Indemnitee’s right to indemnification, in whole or in part, in any such proceeding shall also be indemnified by the corporation. Notwithstanding the foregoing, in any suit brought by Indemnitee to enforce a right to indemnification hereunder it shall be a defense that the Indemnitee has not met any applicable standard for indemnification set forth in the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

 

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5.8. Limitations. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Article V, except as set forth in Section 5.7, the corporation shall not indemnify an Indemnitee pursuant to this Article V in connection with a proceeding (or part thereof) initiated by such Indemnitee unless the initiation thereof was approved by the Board of Directors of the corporation. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this Article V, the corporation shall not indemnify an Indemnitee to the extent such Indemnitee is reimbursed from the proceeds of insurance, and in the event the corporation makes any indemnification payments to an Indemnitee and such Indemnitee is subsequently reimbursed from the proceeds of insurance, such Indemnitee shall promptly refund indemnification payments to the corporation to the extent of such insurance reimbursement.

5.9. Subsequent Amendment. No amendment, termination or repeal of this Article V or of the relevant provisions of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or any other applicable laws shall adversely affect or diminish in any way the rights of any Indemnitee to indemnification under the provisions hereof with respect to any action, suit, proceeding or investigation arising out of or relating to any actions, transactions or facts occurring prior to the final adoption of such amendment, termination or repeal.

5.10. Other Rights. The indemnification and advancement of expenses provided by this Article V shall not be deemed exclusive of any other rights to which an Indemnitee seeking indemnification or advancement of expenses may be entitled under any law (common or statutory), agreement or vote of stockholders or disinterested directors or otherwise, both as to action in Indemnitee’s official capacity and as to action in any other capacity while holding office for the corporation, and shall continue as to an Indemnitee who has ceased to be a director or officer, and shall inure to the benefit of the estate, heirs, executors and administrators of Indemnitee. Nothing contained in this Article V shall be deemed to prohibit, and the corporation is specifically authorized to enter into, agreements with officers and directors providing indemnification rights and procedures different from those set forth in this Article V. In addition, the corporation may, to the extent authorized from time to time by its Board of Directors, grant indemnification rights to other employees or agents of the corporation or other persons serving the corporation and such rights may be equivalent to, or greater or less than, those set forth in this Article V.

5.11. Partial Indemnification. If an Indemnitee is entitled under any provision of this Article V to indemnification by the corporation for some or a portion of the expenses (including attorneys’ fees), liabilities, losses, judgments, fines (including excise taxes and penalties arising under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974) or amounts paid in settlement actually and reasonably incurred by or on behalf of Indemnitee in connection with any action, suit, proceeding or investigation and any appeal therefrom but not, however, for the total amount thereof, the corporation shall nevertheless indemnify Indemnitee for the portion of such expenses (including attorneys’ fees), liabilities, losses, judgments, fines (including excise taxes and penalties arising under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974) or amounts paid in settlement to which Indemnitee is entitled.

5.12. Insurance. The corporation may purchase and maintain insurance, at its expense, to protect itself and any director, officer, employee or agent of the corporation or another corporation, partnership, joint venture, trust or other enterprise (including any employee

 

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benefit plan) against any expense, liability or loss incurred by him or her in any such capacity, or arising out of his or her status as such, whether or not the corporation would have the power to indemnify such person against such expense, liability or loss under the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware.

5.13. Savings Clause. If this Article V or any portion hereof shall be invalidated on any ground by any court of competent jurisdiction, then the corporation shall nevertheless indemnify each Indemnitee as to any expenses (including attorneys’ fees), liabilities, losses, judgments, fines (including excise taxes and penalties arising under the Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974) and amounts paid in settlement in connection with any action, suit, proceeding or investigation, whether civil, criminal or administrative, including an action by or in the right of the corporation, to the fullest extent permitted by any applicable portion of this Article V that shall not have been invalidated and to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law.

5.14. Definitions. Terms used herein and defined in Section 145(h) and Section 145(i) of the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware shall have the respective meanings assigned to such terms in such Section 145(h) and Section 145(i).

ARTICLE VI

GENERAL PROVISIONS

6.1. Fiscal Year. Except as from time to time otherwise designated by the Board of Directors, the fiscal year of the corporation shall begin on the first day of January of each year and end on the last day of December in each year.

6.2. Corporate Seal. The corporate seal shall be in such form as shall be approved by the Board of Directors.

6.3. Waiver of Notice. Whenever notice is required to be given by law, by the Certificate of Incorporation or by these By-laws, a written waiver signed by the person entitled to notice, or a waiver by electronic transmission by the person entitled to notice, whether before, at or after the time of the event for which notice is to be given, shall be deemed equivalent to notice required to be given to such person. Neither the business to be transacted at, nor the purpose of, any meeting need be specified in any such waiver. Attendance of a person at a meeting shall constitute a waiver of notice of such meeting, except when the person attends a meeting for the express purpose of objecting at the beginning of the meeting, to the transaction of any business because the meeting is not lawfully called or convened.

6.4. Voting of Securities. Except as the Board of Directors may otherwise designate, the Chief Executive Officer, the President or the Treasurer may waive notice of, vote, or appoint any person or persons to vote, on behalf of the corporation at, and act as, or appoint any person or persons to act as, proxy or attorney-in-fact for this corporation (with or without power of substitution) at, any meeting of stockholders or securityholders of any other entity, the securities of which may be held by this corporation.

 

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6.5. Evidence of Authority. A certificate by the Secretary, or an Assistant Secretary, or a temporary Secretary, as to any action taken by the stockholders, directors, a committee or any officer or representative of the corporation shall as to all persons who rely on the certificate in good faith be conclusive evidence of such action.

6.6. Reliance upon Books, Reports and Records. Each director, each member of any committee designated by the Board of Directors and each officer shall, in the performance of his or her duties, be fully protected in relying in good faith upon the books and records of the corporation and upon the information, opinions, reports or statements presented to the corporation by any of its officers, agents or employees, or committees of the Board of Directors, or by any other person or entity as to matters which the director, committee member or officer reasonably believes are within the other person’s or entity’s professional or expert competence and that has been selected with reasonable care by or on behalf of the corporation.

6.7. Checks, Notes, Drafts, Etc. All checks, notes, drafts or other orders for the payment of money of the corporation shall be signed, endorsed or accepted in the name of the corporation by such officer, officers, person or persons as from time to time may be designated by the Board of Directors or by an officer or officers authorized by the Board of Directors to make such designation.

6.8. Dividends. The Board of Directors may from time to time declare, and the corporation may pay, dividends on the shares of stock of the corporation in the manner and upon the terms and conditions provided by law and the Certificate of Incorporation.

6.9. Certificate of Incorporation. All references in these By-laws to the Certificate of Incorporation shall be deemed to refer to the Certificate of Incorporation of the corporation, as amended and in effect from time to time.

6.10. Severability and Inconsistency. Any determination that any provision of these By-laws is for any reason inapplicable, illegal or ineffective shall not affect or invalidate any other provision of these By-laws. If any provision of these By-laws is or becomes inconsistent with any provision of the Certificate of Incorporation, the General Corporation Law of the State of Delaware or any other applicable law, the provision of these By-laws shall not be given any effect to the extent of the inconsistency, but shall otherwise be given full force and effect.

6.11. Pronouns. All pronouns used in these By-laws shall be deemed to refer to the masculine, feminine or neuter, singular or plural, as the identity of the person or persons may require.

ARTICLE VII

AMENDMENTS

These By-laws may be altered, amended or repealed, in whole or in part, or new By-laws may be adopted by the Board of Directors or by the stockholders as provided in the Certificate of Incorporation.

 

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