Registration Rights Agreement

Registration Rights Agreement

Exhibit 10.1

REGISTRATION RIGHTS AGREEMENT

This Registration Rights Agreement (this “Agreement”) is made and entered into as of May 10, 2017, by and among Tokai Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a Delaware corporation (the “Company”) and each of the other parties signatory hereto (each a “Purchaser” and together, the “Purchasers”). This Agreement is made pursuant to the Securities Purchase Agreement, dated as of January 31, 2017, among the Company and the Purchasers (the “Purchase Agreement”).

NOW, THEREFORE, IN CONSIDERATION of the mutual covenants contained in this Agreement, and for other good and valuable consideration the receipt and adequacy of which are hereby acknowledged, the Company and the Purchasers agree as follows:

1. Definitions. Capitalized terms used and not otherwise defined herein that are defined in the Purchase Agreement shall have the meanings given such terms in the Purchase Agreement. As used in this Agreement, the following terms shall have the respective meanings set forth in this Section 1:

Affiliate” means, with respect to any Person, any other Person that, directly or indirectly through one or more intermediaries, Controls, is controlled by or is under common control with such Person, as such terms are used in and construed under Rule 405 under the Securities Act.

Control” (including the terms “controlling”, “controlled by” or “under common control with”) means the possession, direct or indirect, of the power to direct or cause the direction of the management and policies of a Person, whether through the ownership of voting securities, by contract or otherwise.

Commission” means the United States Securities and Exchange Commission, or any successor entity or entities, including, if applicable, the staff of the Commission.

Common Stock” means the common stock, par value $0.001 per share, of the Company.

Closing Date” shall have the meaning set forth in the Purchase Agreement.

Effectiveness Deadline” means: (a) with respect to the Initial Registration Statement required to be filed hereunder, the 120th day following the Closing Date (or the 150th day following the Closing Date in the event the Initial Registration Statement is reviewed by the Commission), (b) with respect to any additional Registration Statements which may be required pursuant to Section 2, the 120th day following the date on which the Company first knows, or reasonably should have known, that such additional Registration Statement is required under such Section (or the 150th day following such date in the event such additional Registration Statement is reviewed by the Commission). If the Effectiveness Deadline falls on a Saturday, Sunday or other date that the Commission is closed for business, the Effectiveness Deadline shall be extended to the next day on which the Commission is open for business.

Effectiveness Period” shall have the meaning set forth in Section 2(a).


Exchange Act” means the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended.

Filing Date” means: (a) with respect to the Initial Registration Statement, the 45th calendar day following the Closing Date, and (b) with respect to any additional Registration Statements that may be required pursuant to Section 2 hereof, the 45th day following the date on which the Company first knows, or reasonably should have known, that such additional Registration Statement is required under such Section.

Holder” or “Holders” means the holder or holders, as the case may be, from time to time of Registrable Securities.

Initial Registration Statement” shall mean the initial Registration Statement required to be filed to cover the resale by the Holders of the Registrable Securities pursuant to Section 2(a).

Person” means an individual or corporation, partnership, trust, incorporated or unincorporated association, joint venture, limited liability company, joint stock company, government (or an agency or subdivision thereof) or other entity of any kind.

Proceeding” means an action, claim, suit, investigation or proceeding (including, without limitation, an investigation or partial proceeding, such as a deposition), whether commenced or threatened.

Prospectus” means the prospectus included in a Registration Statement (including, without limitation, a prospectus that includes any information previously omitted from a prospectus filed as part of an effective registration statement in reliance upon Rule 430A or Rule 430B promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act), as amended or supplemented by any prospectus supplement, with respect to the terms of the offering of any portion of the Registrable Securities covered by a Registration Statement, and all other amendments and supplements to the Prospectus, including post-effective amendments, and all material incorporated by reference or deemed to be incorporated by reference in such Prospectus.

Registrable Securities” means (i) the Shares issued pursuant to the Purchase Agreement and (ii) any other shares of Common Stock issued as (or issuable upon conversion or exercise of any warrant, right or other security which is issued as) a dividend or other distribution with respect to, in exchange for or in replacement of the Shares; provided, however, that any such Registrable Securities shall cease to be Registrable Securities (and the Company shall not be required to maintain the effectiveness of any, or file another, Registration Statement hereunder with respect thereto) for so long as (a) a Registration Statement with respect to the sale of such Registrable Securities is declared effective by the Commission under the Securities Act and such Registrable Securities have been disposed of by the Holder in accordance with such effective Registration Statement, (b) such Registrable Securities have been previously sold or transferred in accordance with Rule 144, or (c) such securities become eligible for resale without volume or manner-of-sale restrictions and without current public information requirements pursuant to Rule 144 as set forth in a written opinion letter to such effect, addressed, delivered and acceptable to the Company’s transfer agent and the affected Holders (assuming that such securities and any securities issuable upon exercise, conversion or exchange of which, or as a dividend upon which, such securities were issued or are issuable, were at no time held by any Affiliate of the Company), as reasonably determined by the Company, upon the advice of counsel to the Company.

 

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Registration Statement” means each of the following: (i) an initial registration statement which is required to register the resale of the Registrable Securities, and (ii) each additional registration statement, if any, contemplated by Section 2, and including, in each case, the Prospectus, amendments and supplements to each such registration statement or Prospectus, including pre- and post-effective amendments, all exhibits thereto, and all material incorporated by reference or deemed to be incorporated by reference in such registration statement.

Rule 144” means Rule 144 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same effect as such Rule.

Rule 415” means Rule 415 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same effect as such Rule.

Rule 424” means Rule 424 promulgated by the Commission pursuant to the Securities Act, as such Rule may be amended from time to time, or any similar rule or regulation hereafter adopted by the Commission having substantially the same effect as such Rule.

Securities Act” means the Securities Act of 1933, as amended.

Shares” shall have the meaning set forth in the Purchase Agreement.

Trading Day” means any day on which the Common Stock is traded on the Nasdaq Global Market, or, if the Nasdaq Global Market is not the principal trading market for the Common Stock, then on the principal securities exchange or securities market on which the Common Stock is then traded.

Transaction Documents” shall have the meaning set forth in the Purchase Agreement.

Underwritten Offering” means a registration in which Registrable Securities are sold to an underwriter for reoffering to the public.

2. Registration.

(a) On or prior to each Filing Date, the Company shall prepare and file with the Commission a Registration Statement covering the resale of all of the Registrable Securities that are not then registered on an existing and effective Registration Statement for an offering to be made on a continuous basis pursuant to Rule 415. The Registration Statement filed hereunder shall be on Form S-3 (except if the Company is not then eligible to register for resale the Registrable Securities on Form S-3, in which case such registration shall be on another appropriate form in accordance herewith) and shall contain (except if otherwise required pursuant to written comments received from the Commission upon a review of such Registration

 

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Statement) the “Plan of Distribution” in substantially the form attached hereto as Annex A (which may be modified to respond to comments, if any, provided by the Commission). The Company shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause a Registration Statement filed under this Agreement to be declared effective under the Securities Act promptly but, in any event, no later than the Effectiveness Deadline for such Registration Statement, and shall, subject to Section 7(d) hereof, use its commercially reasonable efforts to keep the Registration Statement continuously effective under the Securities Act until the earlier of (i) the date that is three years after the Closing Date and (ii) the date on which all securities under such Registration Statement have ceased to be Registrable Securities (the “Effectiveness Period”). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall be entitled to suspend the effectiveness of the Registration Statement at any time prior to the expiration of the Effectiveness Period for up to an aggregate of 30 consecutive Trading Days or an aggregate of 60 Trading Days (which need not be consecutive) in any given 360-day period. It is agreed and understood that the Company shall, from time to time, be obligated to file one or more additional Registration Statements to cover any Registrable Securities which are not registered for resale pursuant to a pre-existing Registration Statement.

(b) Notwithstanding anything contained herein to the contrary, in the event that the Commission limits the amount of Registrable Securities that may be included and sold by Holders in any Registration Statement, including the Initial Registration Statement, pursuant to Rule 415 or any other basis, the Company may reduce the number of Registrable Securities included in such Registration Statement on behalf of the Holders in whole or in part (in case of an exclusion as to a portion of such Registrable Securities, such portion shall be allocated pro rata among such Holders in proportion to the respective numbers of Registrable Securities represented by Shares requested to be registered by each such Holder over the total amount of Registrable Securities represented by Shares) (such Registrable Securities, the “Reduction Securities”). In such event the Company shall give the Holders prompt notice of the number of such Reduction Securities excluded and the Company will not be liable for any damages under this Agreement in connection with the exclusion of such Reduction Securities. The Company shall use its commercially reasonable efforts at the first opportunity that is permitted by the Commission to register for resale the Reduction Securities. Such new Registration Statement shall be on Form S-3, or any successor short form registration statement (except if the Company is not then eligible to register for resale the Reduction Securities on Form S-3, in which case such registration shall be on another appropriate form for such purpose) and shall contain (except if otherwise required pursuant to written comments received from the Commission upon a review of such Registration Statement) the “Plan of Distribution” in substantially the form attached hereto as Annex A (which may be modified to respond to comments, if any, provided by the Commission). The Company shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to cause each such Registration Statement to be declared effective under the Securities Act as soon as possible but, in any event, no later than the Effectiveness Deadline, and shall use its commercially reasonable efforts to keep such Registration Statement continuously effective under the Securities Act during the entire Effectiveness Period, subject to Section 7(d) hereof. Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall be entitled to suspend the effectiveness of such Registration Statement at any time prior to the expiration of the Effectiveness Period for an aggregate of no more than 30 consecutive Trading Days or an aggregate of 60 Trading Days (which need not be consecutive) in any given 360-day period.

 

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(c) If: (i) the Initial Registration Statement is not filed with the Commission on or prior to the Filing Date, (ii) the Initial Registration Statement is not declared effective by the Commission (or otherwise does not become effective) on or prior to the Effectiveness Deadline or (iii) after the date it is declared effective by the Commission and except as provided in Section 3(i), (A) such Registration Statement ceases for any reason (including without limitation by reason of a stop order, or the Company’s failure to update the Registration Statement), to remain continuously effective as to all Registrable Securities included in such Registration Statement or (B) the Holders are not permitted to utilize the Prospectus therein to resell such Registrable Securities for any reason (other than due to a change in the “Plan of Distribution” or the inaccuracy of any information regarding the Holders) in each case for more than an aggregate of 30 consecutive Trading Days or 60 Trading Days (which need not be consecutive) in any given 360-day period (other than as a result of a breach of this Agreement by such Holder), or (iv) the Company fails to satisfy the current public information requirement pursuant to Rule 144(c)(1) as a result of which the Holders who are not affiliates are unable to sell Registrable Securities without restriction under Rule 144 (or any successor thereto), (any such failure or breach in clauses (i) through (iv) above being referred to as an “Event,” and, for purposes of clauses (i), (ii) or (iv), the date on which such Event occurs, or for purposes of clause (iii), the date on which such 30 or 60 Trading Day period is exceeded, being referred to as an “Event Date”), then in addition to any other rights the Holders may have hereunder or under applicable law, on each such Event Date and on each monthly anniversary of each such Event Date (if the applicable Event shall not have been cured by such date) until the earlier of (1) the applicable Event is cured or (2) the Registrable Securities are eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144 without manner of sale or volume restrictions or the current public information requirement, the Company shall pay to each Holder an amount in cash, as liquidated damages and not as a penalty (“Liquidated Damages”), equal to 1% of the aggregate purchase price paid by such Holder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement for any unregistered Registrable Securities then held by such Holder. The parties agree that (1) notwithstanding anything to the contrary herein or in the Purchase Agreement, no Liquidated Damages shall be payable with respect to any period after the expiration of the Effectiveness Period (except in respect of an Event described in Section 2(c)(iv) herein), (it being understood that this sentence shall not relieve the Company of any Liquidated Damages accruing prior to the Effectiveness Deadline) and in no event shall, the aggregate amount of Liquidated Damages (excluding Liquidated Damages payable in respect of an Event described in Section 2(c)(iv) herein) payable to a Holder exceed, in the aggregate, 5% of the aggregate purchase price paid by such Holder pursuant to the Purchase Agreement) and (2) in no event shall the Company be liable in any 30 day period for Liquidated Damages under this Agreement in excess of 1% of the aggregate purchase price paid by the Holders pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. The Liquidated Damages pursuant to the terms hereof shall apply on a daily pro-rata basis for any portion of a month prior to the cure of an Event, except in the case of the first Event Date. The Company shall not be liable for Liquidated Damages under this Agreement as to any Registrable Securities which are not permitted by the Commission to be included in a Registration Statement. In such case, the Liquidated Damages shall be calculated to only apply to the percentage of Registrable Securities which are permitted to be included in such Registration Statement. The Effectiveness Deadline for a Registration Statement shall be extended without default or Liquidated Damages hereunder in the event that the Company’s failure to obtain the effectiveness of the Registration Statement on a timely basis results from the failure of a Purchaser to timely provide the Company with information requested by the Company and necessary to complete the Registration Statement in accordance with the requirements of the Securities Act (in which case the Effectiveness Deadline would be extended with respect to Registrable Securities held by such Purchaser).

 

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3. Registration Procedures.

In connection with the Company’s registration obligations hereunder, the Company shall:

(a) Not less than three Trading Days prior to the filing of a Registration Statement or any related Prospectus or any amendment or supplement thereto, furnish to the Holders copies of all such documents proposed to be filed (other than those incorporated by reference). Notwithstanding the foregoing, the Company shall not be required to furnish to the Holders any prospectus supplement being prepared and filed solely to name new or additional selling stockholders unless such Holders are named in such prospectus supplement. In addition, in the event that any Registration Statement is on Form S-1 (or other form which does not permit incorporation by reference), the Company shall not be required to furnish to the Holders any prospectus supplement containing information included in a report or proxy statement filed under the Exchange Act that would be incorporated by reference in such Registration Statement if such Registration Statement were on Form S-3 (or other form which permits incorporation by reference). The Company shall duly incorporate any comments made by Holders acting reasonably and received by the Company not later than two Trading Days prior to the filing of the Registration Statement, but shall not be required to accept any such comments to which it reasonably objects.

(b) (i) Prepare and file with the Commission such amendments, including post-effective amendments, to each Registration Statement and the Prospectus used in connection therewith as may be necessary to keep such Registration Statement continuously effective as to the applicable Registrable Securities for its Effectiveness Period and prepare and file with the Commission such additional Registration Statements in order to register for resale under the Securities Act all of the Registrable Securities; (ii) cause the related Prospectus to be amended or supplemented by any required Prospectus supplement, and as so supplemented or amended to be filed pursuant to Rule 424; (iii) respond as promptly as reasonably possible to any comments received from the Commission with respect to each Registration Statement or any amendment thereto and, as promptly as reasonably possible provide the Holders true and complete copies of all correspondence from and to the Commission relating to such Registration Statement that pertains to the Holders as selling stockholders but not any comments that would result in the disclosure to the Holders of material and non-public information concerning the Company; and (iv) comply in all material respects with the provisions of the Securities Act and the Exchange Act with respect to the Registration Statements and the disposition of all Registrable Securities covered by each Registration Statement.

(c) Notify the Holders as promptly as reasonably possible (and, in the case of (i)(A) below, not less than three Trading Days prior to such filing) and (if requested by any such Person) confirm such notice in writing no later than one Trading Day following the day: (i)(A) when a Prospectus or any prospectus supplement (but only to the extent notice is required under Section 3(a) above) or post-effective amendment to a Registration Statement is proposed to be

 

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filed; (B) when the Commission notifies the Company whether there will be a “review” of such Registration Statement and whenever the Commission comments in writing on such Registration Statement (in which case the Company shall provide true and complete copies thereof and all written responses thereto to each of the Holders that pertain to the Holders as a selling stockholder or to the Plan of Distribution, but not information which the Company believes would constitute material and non-public information); and (C) with respect to each Registration Statement or any post-effective amendment, when the same has been declared effective; (ii) of any request by the Commission or any other Federal or state governmental authority for amendments or supplements to a Registration Statement or Prospectus or for additional information that pertains to the Holders as selling stockholders or the Plan of Distribution; (iii) of the issuance by the Commission of any stop order suspending the effectiveness of a Registration Statement covering any or all of the Registrable Securities or the initiation of any Proceedings for that purpose; (iv) of the receipt by the Company of any notification with respect to the suspension of the qualification or exemption from qualification of any of the Registrable Securities for sale in any jurisdiction, or the initiation or threatening of any Proceeding for such purpose; (v) of the occurrence of any event or passage of time that makes the financial statements included or incorporated by reference in a Registration Statement ineligible for inclusion or incorporation by reference therein or any statement made in such Registration Statement or Prospectus or any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference untrue in any material respect or that requires any revisions to such Registration Statement, Prospectus or other documents so that, in the case of such Registration Statement or the Prospectus, as the case may be, it will not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state any material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading; and (vi) of the occurrence or existence of any pending corporate development with respect to the Company that the Company believes may be material and that, in the determination of the Company, makes it not in the best interest of the Company to allow continued availability of a Registration Statement or Prospectus; provided, that any and all of such information shall remain confidential to each Holder until such information otherwise becomes public, unless disclosure by a Holder is required by law; provided, further, that notwithstanding each Holder’s agreement to keep such information confidential, each such Holder makes no acknowledgement that any such information is material, non-public information.

(d) Use its reasonable best efforts to avoid the issuance of, or, if issued, obtain the withdrawal of (i) any order suspending the effectiveness of a Registration Statement, or (ii) any suspension of the qualification (or exemption from qualification) of any of the Registrable Securities for sale in any jurisdiction, at the earliest practicable moment.

(e) If requested by a Holder, furnish to each Holder, without charge, at least one conformed copy of each Registration Statement and each amendment thereto and all exhibits to the extent reasonably requested by such Person (including those previously furnished or incorporated by reference) promptly after the filing of such documents with the Commission; provided, that the Company shall have no obligation to provide any document pursuant to this clause that is available on the EDGAR system.

 

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(f) If requested by a Holder, promptly deliver to each Holder, without charge, as many copies of each Prospectus or Prospectuses (including each form of prospectus) and each amendment or supplement thereto as such Persons may reasonably request. Subject to Section 7(d) hereof, the Company hereby consents to the use of such Prospectus and each amendment or supplement thereto by each of the selling Holders in connection with the offering and sale of the Registrable Securities covered by such Prospectus and any amendment or supplement thereto.

(g) Prior to any public offering of Registrable Securities, use its commercially reasonable efforts to register or qualify or cooperate with the selling Holders in connection with the registration or qualification (or exemption from such registration or qualification) of such Registrable Securities for offer and sale under the securities or Blue Sky laws of those jurisdictions within the United States as any Holder reasonably requests in writing to keep each such registration or qualification (or exemption therefrom) effective during the Effectiveness Period and to do any and all other acts or things necessary or advisable to enable the disposition in such jurisdictions of the Registrable Securities covered by the Registration Statements; provided, that the Company shall not be required to qualify generally to do business in any jurisdiction where it is not then so qualified or subject the Company to any material tax in any such jurisdiction where it is not then so subject.

(h) Cooperate with the Holders to facilitate the timely preparation and delivery of certificates or book-entry statements representing Registrable Securities to be delivered to a transferee pursuant to the Registration Statements, which certificates or book-entry statements shall be free, to the extent permitted by the Purchase Agreement, of all restrictive legends, and to enable such Registrable Securities to be in such denominations and registered in such names as any such Holders may request.

(i) Upon the occurrence of any event contemplated by Section 3(c)(v), as promptly as reasonably possible, prepare a supplement or amendment, including a post-effective amendment, to the affected Registration Statements or a supplement to the related Prospectus or any document incorporated or deemed to be incorporated therein by reference, and file any other required document so that, as thereafter delivered, no Registration Statement nor any Prospectus will contain an untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading.

(j) The Company may require each selling Holder to furnish to the Company a certified statement as to the number of shares of Common Stock beneficially owned by such Holder and any Affiliate thereof, the natural persons thereof that have voting and dispositive control over the shares and any other information with respect to such Holder as the Commission requests.

4. Holder’s Obligations. Each Holder agrees, by acquisition of the Registrable Securities, that no Holder shall be entitled to sell any of such Registrable Securities pursuant to a Registration Statement or to receive a Prospectus relating thereto, unless such Holder has furnished the Company with all material information required to be set forth in the Purchaser Questionnaire and Selling Stockholder Questionnaire pursuant to the Purchase Agreement. Any sale of any Registrable Securities by any Holder shall constitute a representation and warranty by such Holder that the information regarding such Holder is as set forth in the Prospectus delivered by such Holder in connection with such disposition, and that such Prospectus does not as of the

 

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time of such sale contain any untrue statement of a material fact regarding such Holder or omit to state any material fact regarding such Holder necessary to make the statements in such Prospectus, in the light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading, solely to the extent such facts are based upon information regarding such Holder furnished in writing to the Company by such Holder for use in such Prospectus.

5. Registration Expenses. All fees and expenses incident to the Company’s performance of or compliance with its obligations under this Agreement (excluding any underwriting discounts and selling commissions) shall be borne by the Company whether or not any Registrable Securities are sold pursuant to a Registration Statement. The fees and expenses referred to in the foregoing sentence shall include, without limitation, (i) all registration and filing fees (including, without limitation, fees and expenses (A) with respect to filings required to be made with the principal stock exchange on which the Common Stock is then listed for trading, and (B) in compliance with applicable state securities or Blue Sky laws), (ii) printing expenses (including, without limitation, expenses of printing certificates for Registrable Securities and of printing prospectuses if the printing of prospectuses is reasonably requested by the holders of a majority of the Registrable Securities included in the Registration Statement), (iii) messenger, telephone and delivery expenses, (iv) reasonable fees and disbursements of counsel for the Company, (v) reasonable fees and disbursements of one counsel to the Holders, in an amount not to exceed $50,000, chosen by the Holders of a majority of the then-outstanding Registrable Securities to be included in such Registration Statement, (vi) Securities Act liability insurance, if the Company so desires such insurance, and (vii) reasonable fees and expenses of all other Persons retained by the Company in connection with the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement. In addition, the Company shall be responsible for all of its internal expenses incurred in connection with the consummation of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement (including, without limitation, all salaries and expenses of its officers and employees performing legal or accounting duties), the expense of any annual audit and the fees and expenses incurred in connection with the listing of the Registrable Securities on any securities exchange as required hereunder. In no event shall the Company be responsible for any broker or similar commissions of any Holder or, except to the extent provided for in the Transaction Documents, any legal fees or other costs of the Holders. To the extent that underwriting discounts and selling commissions are incurred in connection with the registration, pursuant to a Registration Statement, of Registrable Securities in an Underwritten Offering hereunder, such underwriting discounts and selling commissions shall be borne by the Holders of Registrable Securities covered by such Registration Statement, pro rata on the basis of the number of Registrable Securities registered on their behalf in such Registration Statement and included in such Underwritten Offering.

6. Indemnification.

(a) Indemnification by the Company. The Company shall, notwithstanding any termination of this Agreement, indemnify and hold harmless each Holder, the officers, directors, agents, partners, members, stockholders and employees of each Holder, each Person who controls any such Holder (within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act or Section 20 of the Exchange Act) and the officers, directors, agents, partners, members, stockholders and employees of each such controlling Person, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, from and against any and all losses, claims, damages, liabilities, costs (including, without

 

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limitation, reasonable costs of preparation and reasonable attorneys’ fees) and expenses (collectively, “Losses”), as incurred, arising out of or relating to any untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Registration Statement, any Prospectus or any form of prospectus or in any amendment or supplement thereto (it being understood that the Holder has approved Annex A hereto for this purpose), or arising out of or relating to any omission or alleged omission of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (in the case of any Prospectus or form of prospectus or supplement thereto, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading, except to the extent, but only to the extent, that (1) such untrue statements, alleged untrue statements, omissions or alleged omissions are based solely upon information regarding such Holder furnished in writing to the Company by such Holder expressly for use therein, or to the extent that such information relates to such Holder or such Holder’s proposed method of distribution of Registrable Securities and was reviewed and expressly approved in writing by such Holder expressly for use in the Registration Statement, such Prospectus or such form of Prospectus or in any amendment or supplement thereto (it being understood that the Holder has approved Annex A hereto for this purpose) or (2) in the case of an occurrence of an event of the type specified in Section 3(c)(ii)-(v), the use by such Holder of an outdated or defective Prospectus after the Company has validly notified such Holder in writing (in accordance with Section 7(i) below) that the Prospectus is outdated or defective and prior to the receipt by such Holder of an Advice (as defined below) or an amended or supplemented Prospectus, but only if and to the extent that following the receipt of the Advice or the amended or supplemented Prospectus the misstatement or omission giving rise to such Loss would have been corrected. The Company shall notify the Holders promptly of the institution, threat or assertion of any Proceeding of which the Company is aware in connection with the transactions contemplated by this Agreement.

(b) Indemnification by Holders. Each Holder shall, notwithstanding any termination of this Agreement, severally and not jointly, indemnify and hold harmless the Company, its directors, officers, agents and employees, each Person who controls the Company (within the meaning of Section 15 of the Securities Act and Section 20 of the Exchange Act), and the directors, officers, agents, partners, members, stockholders or employees of such controlling Persons, to the fullest extent permitted by applicable law, from and against all Losses, as incurred, arising solely out of or based solely upon: (x) for so long as the Company is not eligible to use Form S-3 under the Securities Act for a primary offering in reliance on General Instruction I.B.1 of such form the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act apply to sales by such Holder, such Holder’s failure to comply with the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act or (y) any untrue statement of a material fact contained in any Registration Statement, any Prospectus, or any form of prospectus, or in any amendment or supplement thereto, or arising solely out of or based solely upon any omission of a material fact required to be stated therein or necessary to make the statements therein (in the case of any Prospectus, or any form of prospectus or supplement thereto, in light of the circumstances under which they were made) not misleading to the extent, but only to the extent that, (1) such untrue statements or omissions are based solely upon information regarding such Holder furnished in writing to the Company by such Holder expressly for use therein, or to the extent that such information relates to such Holder or such Holder’s proposed method of distribution of Registrable Securities and was reviewed and expressly approved in writing by such Holder expressly for use in the Registration Statement, such Prospectus or such form of Prospectus or in any amendment or supplement thereto (it being understood that the Holder has approved Annex A hereto for this

 

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purpose) or (2) in the case of an occurrence of an event of the type specified in Section 3(c)(ii)-(v), the use by such Holder of an outdated or defective Prospectus after the Company has validly notified such Holder in writing (in accordance with Section 7(i) below) that the Prospectus is outdated or defective and prior to the receipt by such Holder of an Advice or an amended or supplemented Prospectus, but only if and to the extent that following the receipt of the Advice or the amended or supplemented Prospectus the misstatement or omission giving rise to such Loss would have been corrected. In no event shall the liability of any selling Holder hereunder be greater in amount than the dollar amount of the net proceeds received by such Holder upon the sale of the Registrable Securities giving rise to such indemnification obligation.

(c) Conduct of Indemnification Proceedings. If any Proceeding shall be brought or asserted against any Person entitled to indemnity hereunder (an “Indemnified Party”), such Indemnified Party shall promptly notify the Person from whom indemnity is sought (the “Indemnifying Party”) in writing, and the Indemnifying Party shall assume the defense thereof, including the employment of counsel reasonably satisfactory to the Indemnified Party and the payment of all fees and expenses incurred in connection with defense thereof; provided, that the failure of any Indemnified Party to give such notice shall not relieve the Indemnifying Party of its obligations or liabilities pursuant to this Agreement, except (and only) to the extent that it shall be finally determined by a court of competent jurisdiction (which determination is not subject to appeal or further review) that such failure shall have proximately and materially adversely prejudiced the Indemnifying Party.

An Indemnified Party shall have the right to employ separate counsel in any such Proceeding and to participate in the defense thereof, but the fees and expenses of such counsel shall be at the expense of such Indemnified Party or Parties unless: (1) the Indemnifying Party has agreed in writing to pay such fees and expenses; (2) the Indemnifying Party shall have failed promptly to assume the defense of such Proceeding and to employ counsel reasonably satisfactory to such Indemnified Party in any such Proceeding; or (3) the named parties to any such Proceeding (including any impleaded parties) include both such Indemnified Party and the Indemnifying Party, and such Indemnified Party shall have been advised by counsel that a conflict of interest is likely to exist if the same counsel were to represent such Indemnified Party and the Indemnifying Party (in which case, if such Indemnified Party notifies the Indemnifying Party in writing that it elects to employ separate counsel at the expense of the Indemnifying Party, the Indemnifying Party shall not have the right to assume the defense thereof and such counsel shall be at the expense of the Indemnifying Party); provided, that the Indemnifying Party shall not be liable for the fees and expenses of more than one separate firm of attorneys at any time for all Indemnified Parties pursuant to this Section 6(c). The Indemnifying Party shall not be liable for any settlement of any such Proceeding effected without its written consent, which consent shall not be unreasonably withheld. No Indemnifying Party shall, without the prior written consent of the Indemnified Party, effect any settlement of any pending Proceeding in respect of which any Indemnified Party is a party, unless such settlement includes an unconditional release of such Indemnified Party from all liability on claims that are the subject matter of such Proceeding. Each Indemnified Party shall furnish such information regarding itself or the claim in question as an Indemnifying Party may reasonably request in writing and as shall be reasonably required in connection with defense of such claim and litigation resulting therefrom.

 

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All fees and expenses of the Indemnified Party (including reasonable fees and expenses to the extent incurred in connection with investigating or preparing to defend such Proceeding in a manner not inconsistent with this Section) shall be paid to the Indemnified Party, as incurred, within ten Trading Days of written notice thereof to the Indemnifying Party (regardless of whether it is ultimately determined that an Indemnified Party is not entitled to indemnification hereunder; provided, that the Indemnifying Party may require such Indemnified Party to undertake to reimburse all such fees and expenses to the extent it is finally judicially determined that such Indemnified Party is not entitled to indemnification hereunder).

(d) Contribution. If a claim for indemnification under Section 6(a) or 6(b) is unavailable to an Indemnified Party (by reason of public policy or otherwise), then each Indemnifying Party, in lieu of indemnifying such Indemnified Party, shall contribute to the amount paid or payable by such Indemnified Party as a result of such Losses, in such proportion as is appropriate to reflect the relative fault of the Indemnifying Party and Indemnified Party in connection with the actions, statements or omissions that resulted in such Losses as well as any other relevant equitable considerations. The relative fault of such Indemnifying Party and Indemnified Party shall be determined by reference to, among other things, whether any action in question, including any untrue or alleged untrue statement of a material fact or omission or alleged omission of a material fact, has been taken or made by, or relates to information supplied by, such Indemnifying Party or Indemnified Party, and the parties’ relative intent, knowledge, access to information and opportunity to correct or prevent such action, statement or omission. The amount paid or payable by a party as a result of any Losses shall be deemed to include, subject to the limitations set forth in Section 6(c), any reasonable attorneys’ or other reasonable fees or expenses incurred by such party in connection with any Proceeding to the extent such party would have been indemnified for such fees or expenses if the indemnification provided for in this Section was available to such party in accordance with its terms.

The parties hereto agree that it would not be just and equitable if contribution pursuant to this Section 6(d) were determined by pro rata allocation or by any other method of allocation that does not take into account the equitable considerations referred to in the immediately preceding paragraph. Notwithstanding the provisions of this Section 6(d), no Holder shall be required to contribute, in the aggregate, any amount in excess of the amount by which the proceeds actually received by such Holder from the sale of the Registrable Securities subject to the Proceeding exceeds the amount of any damages that such Holder has otherwise been required to pay by reason of such untrue or alleged untrue statement or omission or alleged omission. No person guilty of fraudulent misrepresentation (within the meaning of Section 11(f) of the Securities Act) shall be entitled to contribution from any person who was not guilty of such fraudulent misrepresentation.

The indemnity and contribution agreements contained in this Section 6 are in addition to any liability that the Indemnifying Parties may have to the Indemnified Parties and are not in diminution or limitation of the indemnification provisions under the Purchase Agreement.

 

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7. Miscellaneous.

(a) Remedies. The parties agree that, in the event of a breach of this Agreement, the parties will, in addition to being entitled to exercise all rights granted by law and under this Agreement, including recovery of damages, be entitled to specific performance of its rights under this Agreement. The parties agree that monetary damages may not provide adequate compensation for any losses incurred by reason of a breach of the provisions of this Agreement and hereby further agree that, in the event of any action for specific performance in respect of such breach, it shall waive the defense that a remedy at law would be adequate.

(b) Compliance. Each Holder covenants and agrees that it will comply with the prospectus delivery requirements of the Securities Act as applicable to it in connection with sales of Registrable Securities pursuant to the Registration Statement.

(c) Subsequent Registration Rights. Until the Initial Registration Statement required hereunder is declared effective by the Commission, the Company shall not enter into any agreement granting any registration rights with respect to any of its securities to any Person without the written consent of Holders representing no less than a majority of the then outstanding Registrable Securities; provided, that this Section 7(c) shall not prohibit the Company from fulfilling its obligations under any other registration rights agreements existing as of the date hereof.

(d) Discontinued Disposition. Each Holder agrees by its acquisition of such Registrable Securities that, upon receipt of a notice from the Company of the occurrence of any event of the kind described in Section 3(c), such Holder will forthwith discontinue disposition of such Registrable Securities under the Registration Statement until such Holder’s receipt of the copies of the supplemented Prospectus and/or amended Registration Statement or until it is advised in writing (the “Advice”) by the Company that the use of the applicable Prospectus may be resumed, and, in either case, has received copies of any additional or supplemental filings that are incorporated or deemed to be incorporated by reference in such Prospectus or Registration Statement. The Company may provide appropriate stop orders to enforce the provisions of this paragraph.

(e) Furnishing of Information. Each Holder shall furnish in writing to the Company such information regarding itself, the Registrable Securities held by it and the intended method of disposition of the Registrable Securities held by it, as shall be reasonably requested by the Company to effect the registration of such Registrable Securities and shall execute such documents in connection with such registration as the Company may reasonably request.

(f) Piggy-Back Registrations. If at any time during the Effectiveness Period, except as contemplated by Section 2(b) hereof, there is not an effective Registration Statement covering all of the Registrable Securities and the Company shall determine to prepare and file with the Commission a registration statement relating to an offering for its own account or the account of others (other than an offering pursuant to that certain Fifth Amended and Restated Investor Rights Agreement dated May 13, 2013 among the Company and the investors party thereto) under the Securities Act of any of its equity securities, other than on Form S-4 or Form S-8 (each as promulgated under the Securities Act) or their then equivalents relating to equity securities to be issued solely in connection with any acquisition of any entity or business or equity securities issuable in connection with stock option or other employee benefit plans, then

 

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the Company shall send to each Holder a written notice of such determination and, if within 15 days after the date of such notice, any such Holder shall so request in writing, the Company shall include in such registration statement all or any part of such Registrable Securities such Holder requests to be registered; provided, however, that the Company shall not be required to register any Registrable Securities pursuant to this Section 7(f) that are eligible for resale pursuant to Rule 144 promulgated under the Securities Act without volume or manner of sale limitations or that are the subject of a then effective Registration Statement; provided, further, however, if there is not an effective Registration Statement covering all of the Registrable Securities during the Effectiveness Period, the Company may file a registration statement with the Commission to register equity securities of the Company to be sold on a primary basis, provided that the Company does not sell any such shares until there is an effective Registration Statement covering all of the Registrable Securities. The Company shall have the right to terminate or withdraw any registration initiated by it under this Section 7(f) prior to the effectiveness of such registration whether or not any Holder has elected to include securities in such registration.

(g) Amendments and Waivers. No provision of this Agreement may be waived or amended with respect to the Company and a Purchaser except with the written consent of the Company and such Purchaser. The Company shall provide prior notice to all Holders of any proposed waiver or amendment. No waiver of any default with respect to any provision, condition or requirement of this Agreement shall be deemed to be a continuing waiver in the future or a waiver of any subsequent default or a waiver of any other provision, condition or requirement hereof, nor shall any delay or omission of either party to exercise any right hereunder in any manner impair the exercise of any such right.

(h) Termination of Registration Rights. For the avoidance of doubt, it is expressly agreed and understood that (i) in the event that there are no Registrable Securities outstanding as of a Filing Date, then the Company shall have no obligation to file, cause to be declared effective or to keep effective any Registration Statement hereunder (including any Registration Statement previously filed pursuant to this Agreement) and (ii) all registration rights granted to the Holders hereunder (including the rights set forth in Sections 7(c) and 7(f)), shall terminate in their entirety effective on the first date on which there shall cease to be any Registrable Securities outstanding. If not previously terminated pursuant to the foregoing sentence, it is expressly agreed and understood that all registration rights granted to the Holder pursuant to this Agreement shall terminate as to the Holder on the earlier of (a) such time following the date that is five (5) years following the date of this Agreement that the Holders own in the aggregate less than 25% of the number of Registrable Securities that the Holders owned in the aggregate as of the date hereof (as adjusted for stock splits, combinations, dividends, recapitalizations and the like) and (b) the date that is ten (10) years following the date of this Agreement.

(i) Notices. All notices, requests, consents and other communications hereunder shall be in writing, shall be sent by confirmed electronic mail, or mailed by first-class registered or certified airmail, or nationally recognized overnight express courier, postage prepaid, and shall be deemed given when so sent in the case of electronic mail transmission, or when so received in the case of mail or courier, and addressed as follows:

 

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if to the Company, to:

Tokai Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

255 State Street, 6th Floor

Boston, MA 02109

Attention: Chief Executive Officer

Email: [email protected]

with a copy (which shall not constitute notice) to:

Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale and Dorr LLP

60 State Street

Boston, MA 02109

Attention: Stuart M. Falber, Esq.

Attention: Hal J. Leibowitz, Esq.

Otic Pharma, Ltd.

Gregory J. Flesher

Chief Executive Officer

19900 MacArthur Blvd., Suite 550

Irvine, CA 92612

Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher, LLP

555 Mission Street, Suite 3000

San Francisco, CA 94105

Attention: Ryan A. Murr

 

If to a Purchaser:

  

To the address set forth under such Purchaser’s name on the signature pages hereto

If to any other

Person who is then

the registered Holder:

  

To the address of such Holder as it appears in the stock transfer books of the Company

or such other address as may be designated in writing hereafter, in the same manner, by such Person.

(j) Successors and Assigns. This Agreement shall inure to the benefit of and be binding upon the successors and permitted assigns of each of the parties and shall inure to the benefit of each Holder.

 

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(k) Execution and Counterparts. This Agreement may be executed in any number of counterparts, each of which when so executed shall be deemed to be an original and, all of which taken together shall constitute one and the same Agreement and shall become effective when counterparts have been signed by each party and delivered to the other party, it being understood that both parties need not sign the same counterpart. In the event that any signature is delivered by facsimile transmission or by e-mail delivery of a “.pdf” format data file, such signature shall create a valid binding obligation of the party executing (or on whose behalf such signature is executed) the same with the same force and effect as if such facsimile or “.pdf” signature were the original thereof.

(l) Governing Law. All questions concerning the construction, validity, enforcement and interpretation of this Agreement shall be governed by and construed and enforced in accordance with the internal laws of the State of New York, without regard to the principles of conflicts of law thereof. Each party agrees that all legal proceedings concerning the interpretations, enforcement and defense of the transactions contemplated by this Agreement and any other Transaction Documents (whether brought against a party hereto or its respective affiliates, directors, officers, shareholders, employees or agents) shall be commenced exclusively in the state and federal courts sitting in New York, New York. Each party hereby irrevocably submits to the exclusive jurisdiction of the state and federal courts sitting in the City and County of New York for the adjudication of any dispute hereunder or in connection herewith or with any transaction contemplated hereby or discussed herein (including with respect to the enforcement of any of the Transaction Documents), and hereby irrevocably waives, and agrees not to assert in any suit, action or proceeding, any claim that it is not personally subject to the jurisdiction of any such court, that such suit, action or proceeding is improper or is an inconvenient venue for such proceeding. Each party hereby irrevocably waives personal service of process and consents to process being served in any such suit, action or proceeding by mailing a copy thereof via registered or certified mail or overnight delivery (with evidence of delivery) to such party at the address in effect for notices to it under this Agreement and agrees that such service shall constitute good and sufficient service of process and notice thereof. Nothing contained herein shall be deemed to limit in any way any right to serve process in any other manner permitted by law.

(m) Cumulative Remedies. The remedies provided herein are cumulative and not exclusive of any remedies provided by law.

(n) Severability. If any term, provision, covenant or restriction of this Agreement is held by a court of competent jurisdiction to be invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable, the remainder of the terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions set forth herein shall remain in full force and effect and shall in no way be affected, impaired or invalidated, and the parties hereto shall use their reasonable best efforts to find and employ an alternative means to achieve the same or substantially the same result as that contemplated by such term, provision, covenant or restriction. It is hereby stipulated and declared to be the intention of the parties that they would have executed the remaining terms, provisions, covenants and restrictions without including any of such that may be hereafter declared invalid, illegal, void or unenforceable.

(o) Use of Terms. The parties agree and acknowledge that when, in this Agreement, the Company is required to use its reasonable best efforts to perform any covenant under this Agreement, such requirement shall not obligate the Company, in the reasonable judgment of the disinterested members of its Board of Directors, to perform any act that will have a material adverse effect on the Company.

 

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(p) Headings. The headings in this Agreement are for convenience of reference only and shall not limit or otherwise affect the meaning hereof.

(q) Independent Nature of Purchasers’ Obligations and Rights. The obligations of each Purchaser hereunder is several and not joint with the obligations of any other Purchaser hereunder, and no Purchaser shall be responsible in any way for the performance of the obligations of any other Purchaser hereunder. The decision by each Purchaser to purchase Shares pursuant to the Transaction Documents has been made independently of any other Purchaser. Nothing contained herein or in any other agreement or document delivered at any closing, and no action taken by any Purchaser pursuant hereto or thereto, shall be deemed to constitute the Purchasers as a partnership, an association, a joint venture or any other kind of entity, or create a presumption that the Purchasers are in any way acting in concert with respect to such obligations or the transactions contemplated by this Agreement. Each Purchaser acknowledges that no other Purchaser has acted as agent for such Purchaser in connection with making its investment hereunder and that no Purchaser will be acting as agent of such Purchaser in connection with monitoring its investment in the Shares or enforcing its rights under the Transaction Documents. Each Purchaser shall be entitled to protect and enforce its rights, including without limitation the rights arising out of this Agreement, and it shall not be necessary for any other Purchaser to be joined as an additional party in any proceeding for such purpose.

[signature pages follow]

 

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IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

TOKAI PHARMACEUTICALS, INC.
By:  

/s/ Gregory J. Flesher

Name: Gregory J. Flesher
Title: Chief Executive Officer

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:
Peregrine Ventures Management Ltd.
By:  

/s/ Eyal Lifschitz

Name: Eyal Lifschitz
Title: General Partner

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:

Pontifax (Israel) III L.P.

By: /s/ Tomer Kariv                                             

Name: Tomer Kariv

Title: CEO

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:
Pontifax (Cayman) III L.P.
By: /s/ Tomer Kariv                                             
Name: Tomer Kariv
Title: CEO

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:

/s/ Gregory J. Flesher

Gregory J. Flesher

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:

/s/ Catherine C. Turkel

Catherine C. Turkel

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:

/s/ Christine G. Ocampo

Christine G. Ocampo

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:

/s/ Mai Do Sirimanne

Mai Do Sirimanne

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the parties have executed this Registration Rights Agreement as of the date first written above.

 

PURCHASERS:

/s/ Michael P. Cruse

Michael P. Cruse

Signature Pages to Registration Rights Agreement


ANNEX A

PLAN OF DISTRIBUTION

The selling stockholders and any of their pledgees, donees, transferees, assignees or other successors-in-interest may, from time to time, sell, transfer or otherwise dispose of any or all of their shares of common stock or interests in shares of common stock on any stock exchange, market or trading facility on which the shares are traded or in private transactions. These dispositions may be at fixed prices, at prevailing market prices at the time of sale, at prices related to the prevailing market price, at varying prices determined at the time of sale, or at negotiated prices. The selling stockholders may use one or more of the following methods when disposing of the shares or interests therein:

 

    ordinary brokerage transactions and transactions in which the broker-dealer solicits purchasers;

 

    block trades in which the broker-dealer will attempt to sell the shares as agent but may position and resell a portion of the block as principal to facilitate the transaction;

 

    through brokers, dealers or underwriters that may act solely as agents;

 

    purchases by a broker-dealer as principal and resale by the broker-dealer for its account;

 

    an exchange distribution in accordance with the rules of the applicable exchange;

 

    privately negotiated transactions;

 

    through the writing or settlement of options or other hedging transactions entered into after the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part, whether through an options exchange or otherwise;

 

    broker-dealers may agree with the selling stockholders to sell a specified number of such shares at a stipulated price per share;

 

    a combination of any such methods of disposition; and

 

    any other method permitted pursuant to applicable law.

The selling stockholders may also sell shares under Rule 144 under the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, or Securities Act, if available, or Section 4(a)(1) under the Securities Act, rather than under this prospectus.

Broker-dealers engaged by the selling stockholders may arrange for other broker-dealers to participate in sales. Broker-dealers may receive commissions or discounts from the selling stockholders (or, if any broker-dealer acts as agent for the purchaser of shares, from the purchaser) in amounts to be negotiated. The selling stockholders do not expect these commissions and discounts to exceed what is customary in the types of transactions involved.


The selling stockholders may, from time to time, pledge or grant a security interest in some or all of the shares of common stock owned by them and, if they default in the performance of their secured obligations, the pledgees or secured parties may offer and sell shares of common stock from time to time under this prospectus, or under a supplement or amendment to this prospectus under Rule 424(b)(3) or other applicable provision of the Securities Act amending the list of selling stockholders to include the pledgee, transferee or other successors in interest as selling stockholders under this prospectus.

Upon being notified in writing by a selling stockholder that any particular offer of shares of common stock is made, including that any material arrangement has been entered into with a broker-dealer for the sale of common stock through a block trade, special offering, exchange distribution or secondary distribution or a purchase by a broker or dealer, we will file a supplement to this prospectus, if required, pursuant to Rule 424(b) under the Securities Act, disclosing (i) the name of each such selling stockholder and of the participating broker-dealer(s), (ii) the number of shares involved, (iii) the price at which such shares of common stock were sold, (iv) the commissions paid or discounts or concessions allowed to such broker-dealer(s), where applicable, (v) that such broker-dealer(s) did not conduct any investigation to verify the information set out or incorporated by reference in this prospectus, and (vi) other facts material to the transaction. In addition, upon being notified in writing by a selling stockholder that a donee or pledge intends to sell more than 500 shares of common stock, we will file a supplement to this prospectus if then required in accordance with applicable securities law.

The selling stockholders also may transfer the shares of common stock in other circumstances, in which case the transferees, pledgees or other successors in interest will be the selling beneficial owners for purposes of this prospectus.

In connection with the sale of the shares of common stock or interests in shares of common stock, the selling stockholders may enter into hedging transactions after the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with broker-dealers or other financial institutions, which may in turn engage in short sales of the common stock in the course of hedging the positions they assume. The selling stockholders may also sell shares of common stock short after the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part and deliver these securities to close out their short positions, or loan or pledge the common stock to broker-dealers that in turn may sell these securities. The selling stockholders may also enter into option or other transactions after the effective date of the registration statement of which this prospectus is a part with broker-dealers or other financial institutions or the creation of one or more derivative securities which require the delivery to such broker-dealer or other financial institution of shares offered by this prospectus, which shares such broker-dealer or other financial institution may resell pursuant to this prospectus (as supplemented or amended to reflect such transaction).

The selling stockholders and any broker-dealers or agents that are involved in selling the shares may be deemed to be “underwriters” within the meaning of the Securities Act in connection with such sales. In such event, any commissions received by such broker-dealers or agents and any profit on the resale of the shares purchased by them may be deemed to be underwriting commissions or discounts under the Securities Act. The maximum commission or discount to be received by any member of the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA) or independent broker-dealer will not be greater than 8% of the initial gross proceeds from the sale of any security being sold.


We have advised the selling stockholders that they are required to comply with Regulation M promulgated under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, during such time as they may be engaged in a distribution of the shares. The foregoing may affect the marketability of the common stock.

The aggregate proceeds to the selling stockholders from the sale of the common stock offered by them will be the purchase price of the common stock less discounts or commissions, if any. Each of the selling stockholders reserves the right to accept and, together with their agents from time to time, to reject, in whole or in part, any proposed purchase of common stock to be made directly or through agents. We will not receive any of the proceeds from this offering.

We are required to pay all fees and expenses incident to the registration of the shares. We have agreed to indemnify the selling stockholders against certain losses, claims, damages and liabilities, including liabilities under the Securities Act or otherwise.

We have agreed with the selling stockholders to keep the registration statement of which this prospectus constitutes a part effective until the earlier of (a) such time as all of the shares covered by this prospectus have been disposed of pursuant to and in accordance with the registration statement, (b) the date on which the shares of common stock covered by this prospectus may be sold or transferred by non-affiliates without any volume limitations or pursuant to Rule 144 of the Securities Act or (c) date that is three years after the Closing Date.